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The Pharynx, Larynx, and Trachea

The neck is covered by the subcutaneous tissue of the neck, or superficial fascia, just under the skin. Beneath that layer you’ll find the pharynx, larynx, and trachea. These anatomical structures help [more…]

Analyzing a Typical Vertebra

Most vertebrae are more or less the same, although they have a few differences of sizes and shapes. For example, the cervical region has two atypical vertebrae that defy the norm. A typical vertebra is [more…]

How the Vertebrae Are Grouped

The vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae located in five regions. The cervical, thoracic, lumbar and cervical regions are well known, but there is a coccygeal region too with 4 vretebrae. The vertebrae [more…]

The Anatomy of the Spine: The Vertebral Joints

The joints of the vertebral column include the joints between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae and joints between the adjacent vertebral arches. Two types of joints in the neck are given special attention [more…]

Muscles of the Back

Back muscles are divided into two specific groups: the extrinsic muscles that are associated with upper extremity and shoulder movement, and the intrinsic muscles that deal with movements of the vertebral [more…]

The Anatomy of the Spinal Cord: The Nerves and the Meninges

The spinal cord serves as an information pathway between your brain and the peripheral nerves that serve the rest of your body. It’s quite delicate and requires a lot of protection. Your spinal cord has [more…]

The Surface Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Back Muscles

Examining the surface anatomy of the back includes inspecting the skin, noting the symmetry (or asymmetry) of the back and its muscles, and assessing the curvatures of the spine. Knowing what landmarks [more…]

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle

The bony structures of the shoulder include the pectoral girdle and one arm bone. These bones have some interesting landmarks, including various bumps and projections. The shoulder and arm bones can be [more…]

The Joints of the Shoulder Girdle

The shoulder and arm bone are joined together by ligaments. The joints allow the shoulder to move your arm up and down, in circles, in front, and toward the back. You may think of the shoulder as one joint [more…]

The Anatomy of the Axilla

The axilla, or underarm (or, less delicately put, the armpit) is that indentation formed under the area where your arm attaches to your shoulder. Blood, lymph vessels, and nerves going to and from the [more…]

Muscles of the Shoulder and Arm

The muscles that provide the movement for the shoulder and upper arm include the anterior muscles in the front, the posterior muscles in the back, and the shoulder muscles that are sort of in between. [more…]

Nerves of the Pectoral Girdle

An amazing network of nerves runs through the shoulder girdle need. The roots of the brachial plexus are formed by the ventral rami of the 5th cervical through the 1st thoracic spinal nerves. The roots [more…]

How Blood and Lymph Flow Through the Shoulder

The tissues of the pectoral girdle need oxygen. So a complex series of arteries supplies blood flow through the shoulder, upper arm and chest area. And because the axilla includes several important lymph [more…]

Nerves and Veins in the Elbow and Forearm

The muscles and joints of the elbow and forearm need nervous supply and blood flow. The major nerves and veins start in your neck and run the length of your arms, often into your hands. [more…]

The Bones and Joints of the Elbow and Forearm

The elbow and the forearm are made up of only three bones and two joints. Half of the elbow is formed by the humerus, the lone bone of the arm. The forearm contains two bones; the radius is on the lateral [more…]

Muscles of the Elbow and Forearm

The muscles of the arm are responsible for the movement of your elbow and, by extension, your forearm. Five muscles originate on either the humerus or the scapula and insert onto the bones of the forearm [more…]

Bones of the Wrist and Hand

The human hand is an anatomical wonder. Each hand and wrist has 27 little bones. Think about all the different movements your wrists, hands, and fingers can make, and you can probably understand why they [more…]

Joints of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers

The large number of bones in the hand and wrist makes for a large number of joints, too. To pass your clinical anatomy course you need to know all about these joints that help you move your wrist, wave [more…]

The Extrinsic Muscles of the Wrist and Hand

The wrist makes larger movements, and the fingers and thumbs make many fine movements. So you have some longer muscles that run from the forearm (the extrinsic muscles) and lots of little hand and finger [more…]

The Intrinsic Muscles of the Wrist and Hand

Moving your hands, fingers and thumbs, requires a lot of muscles. So you have some longer (extrinsic) muscles that run from the forearm and lots of little hand and finger muscles [more…]

Nerves, Arteries, and Veins of the Wrist and Hand

Busy muscles need plenty of nerve supply and blood flow. Three main nerves (plus all their branches) work the wrist and hand, and many arteries and veins bring blood into and out of the hand. [more…]

The Surface Anatomy of the Wrist and Hand

Understanding the clinical anatomy of the wrists and hands is important because you need them for normal daily activity and hand injuries can be debilitating. The wrists and hands are amazing things. You [more…]

Bones of the Hip and Thigh

Understanding the anatomy of the pelvic girdle and thighs is important for knowing how people walk and move; you can then diagnose a variety of ailments, especially those related to exercise. The hip bones [more…]

The Gluteal Muscles

The hips and thighs can move in many different ways due to combinations of lots of muscles, from the muscles of the gluteal region to the muscles of the thigh. The gluteal muscles are located on your backside [more…]

The Thigh Muscles

The thigh muscles don’t just move your legs. They have a lot to do with how your hips move. In clinical anatomy the thigh muscles are divided into three groups: Anterior muscles extend your legs and flex [more…]


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