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The Physiology of the Pelvis

The pelvic organs are housed in the pelvic girdle, which is made up of the bones, joints, and muscles just inferior and posterior to the abdomen and above the lower extremities. The pelvic cavity is the [more…]

The Bones in the Neurocranium

The skull, or more officially, the cranium, has bones that protect your brain. The bones that protect the brain are strong and have very little movement at the joints. Their main purpose is to protect [more…]

The Bones of the Human Face

The bones of the cranium don’t just protect your skull. Some delicate bones form your beautiful face. The facial bones don’t move much, except for the jawbone [more…]

Anatomy of the Brain: The Meninges

The meninges are the coverings of the brain. They protect the brain by housing a fluid-filled space, and they function as a framework for blood vessels. The meninges have three layers: the dura mater, [more…]

The Anatomy of the Human Brain

The brain is composed of several parts that control what you think; how you feel; where you move; what you see, hear, and taste; and many other functions. The cerebrun, cerebellum, and diencephalon are [more…]

The Surface Anatomy of the Pectoral Girdle

The most proximal part of the upper extremity is the shoulder, or pectoral girdle. Its joints allow for a great amount of movement for the arm that’s attached to it. You’ll want to know the anatomy of [more…]

Arteries that Supply Blood to the Brain

Arteries deliver a substantial amount of blood and oxygen to the brain. Blood from the brain is drained by cerebral veins, dural venous sinuses, and the great cerebral vein [more…]

Motor and Sensory Facial Nerves

The motor nerves for the muscles of facial expression come from the facial nerve (CN VII). The muscles of mastication (the ones that move your mouth and jaw when you eat) are innervated by the mandibular [more…]

Veins, Arteries, and Lymphatics of the Face

The physiology of the human face is complex. A series of arteries and veins provide circulation of blood to the various tissues of the face. And of course the face includes some lymphatic tissues. Start [more…]

Muscles of the Face

The face is so expressive. Facial muscles let you show how happy, frown when you’re displeased, or show your flirtatious side with a wink. You can show the world you’re angry or sad or maybe even bored [more…]

The Anatomy of the Human Eye

The eyes are housed in the bony orbits that are formed by eight different bones and covered in periorbita. The orbits protect the eyeballs and the structures they need to function. A bit of orbital fat [more…]

Muscles, Nerves, and Blood Vessels in the Human Eye

Muscles enable you to move your eyes. Ocular nerves allow you to interpret what you see and blood vessels keep your eyes oxygenated. Six muscles, collectively called the extraocular muscles, move the eyeball [more…]

The Anatomy of the Nose

The nose is the part of the respiratory tract that sits front and center on your face. You use it to breathe air in and to stop and smell the roses. The nose’s exterior anatomy includes the nasal cavity [more…]

An Overview of the Oral Cavity

The mouth, or oral cavity, includes your teeth, gums, the soft and hard palates, tongue, tonsils, and salivary glands. These oral structures allow you to eat and drink as well as breathe when your nose [more…]

The Anatomy of the Tongue and the Salivary Glands

The tongue helps you speak, taste food and move it around in your mouth, and yes, even show your obnoxious side. Salivary glands produce saliva, a clear fluid that keeps mucous membranes moist, lubricates [more…]

The Anatomy of the Temporomandibular Joint

The temporomandibular joint is a modified-hinge type of synovial joint made up of the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. The surfaces of the joint are lined [more…]

Nerves, Blood Vessels and Lymphatics of the Oral Cavity

The oral cavity is enervated by cranial nerves. Arteries and veins allow for adequate blood flow, and lymph nodes need to be drained, just like all other parts of the human anatomy. The basic of the nerves [more…]

The Anatomy of the External Ear

Your two ears allow you to hear sounds and wear really cool earrings. The external ear includes the auricle as well as the external acoustic meatus, also known as the ear canal, which ends at the tympanic [more…]

The Anatomy of the Middle Ear

The middle ear takes up the space behind the tympanic membrane, inside the temporal bone. The space is called the tympanic cavity, and it has two parts: the tympanic cavity proper directly behind the membrane [more…]

The Anatomy of the Inner Ear

The inner ear houses the vestibulocochlear organ that maintains balance and receives sound from the middle ear. It has two parts: the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth contains [more…]

The Posterior Triangle of the Neck

Knowledge of the neck anatomy is necessary to examine the musculoskeletal, nervous, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, lymphatic, and cardiovascular systems. After all, the neck is much more than a pedestal [more…]

The Anterior Triangle of the Neck

To examine the musculoskeletal, nervous, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, lymphatic, and cardiovascular systems, you need knowledge of neck anatomy. The anterior triangle of the neck, or the front of [more…]

The Prevertebral Muscles of the Neck

Many muscles are located in the deep structures of the neck. The seven cervical vertebrae form the bony framework of the neck. The cervical vertebrae have a lot of joints that allow for movement in several [more…]

Nerves and Blood Vessels in the Root of the Neck

Anatomically, the root of the neck is the area where the neck attaches to the thorax (the part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen, including the chest). It’s home to several important nerves [more…]

The Location of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

Several organs are found in the neck. The thyroid gland is located in the anterior portion of the neck, in front of the trachea’s 2nd, 3rd, and 4th C-shaped cartilaginous pieces and below the larynx. It’s [more…]


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