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Muscles in the Thoracic Region that Help You Breathe

Clinical anatomy identifies several muscles of the shoulder attached to the thoracic cage. The scalene muscles elevate the 1st and 2nd ribs and bend the neck to the side. So what’s left? The muscles of [more…]

The Nerves and Blood Vessels in the Thoracic Region

The thoracic region of the body showcases the remarkable complexity of human physiology. Nerves, blood vessels, and arteries in this critical region enable sensation and allow blood to flow throughout [more…]

The Surface Anatomy of the Thorax

Clinical anatomy students learn to use imaginary lines and bony landmarks on the front and back of the thorax to describe locations of the anatomical structures. The lines cover the front, side, and back [more…]

The Anatomy of Human Lungs

The lungs are pink spongy organs to the left and right of the heart that provide the means to get oxygen from the air into your red blood cells. Each lung has an apex at the superior end that rises above [more…]

What Is in the Thoracic Cavities?

The thoracic cavity is basically the chest, including everything between the neck and the diaphragm. It’s home to the thoracic organs and is protected by the thoracic cage. The heart and lungs are essential [more…]

The Anatomy of the Human Heart

The heart is a muscular four-chambered pump that beats constantly to keep blood flowing to the rest of your body. To make it’s workings easier to understand, clinical anatomy breaks the heart into three [more…]

Arteries and Veins that Feed the Heart

It needs its own nutrient and oxygen supply so it can keep beating every day, all day long. A complex system of veins and arteries keep the heart supplied with blood and allow the blood to circulate through [more…]

The Physiology of the Human Heart

The constant beating of the heart is controlled by the conducting system of the heart, which is a series of specialized nerve tissues that fire through the heart and coordinate the actions of the heart [more…]

Nerves, Blood Vessels, and Lymphatics
of the Abdomen

The skin, muscles, and other structures of the abdominal wall need nerve supply, blood, and lymphatic drainage. The abdominal wall surrounds the abdominal cavity. It covers the trunk from just below the [more…]

What Is the Inguinal Region?

Clinical anatomy defines the inguinal region of the abdominal wall as the area between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle (in other words, the groin or lower lateral parts of the [more…]

The Anatomy of the Abdominal Wall

The abdominal wall is mainly made up of muscles and the tissues that support them. They combine with the spinal column to give the midsection its structure. The abdominal muscles cover the front and sides [more…]

How to Examine the Abdominal Wall

When you examine a patient’s abdomen, being able to associate the surface of the abdominal wall with the organs found inside the abdominal cavity is helpful. Well, good news: You can do this with some [more…]

Nerves in the Abdomen

The abdomen holds a number of important organs, but its physiology includes an important network of nerves as well. The organs of the abdomen are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. The [more…]

Where Is Your Liver and What Does It Do?

The liver is the largest organ in the abdomen, and it sits just under the diaphragm in the right upper quadrant. It’s a busy organ because just about every substance you eat goes to the liver to be metabolized [more…]

The Anatomy of the Gallbladder and Pancreas

As part of the digestive system, the gallbladder and pancreas help you break down food. The gallbladder is a pouch-shaped organ that stores bile produced by the liver. After you eat a meal, a substance [more…]

What Is the Peritoneum?

The peritoneum is a membrane made up of two layers. One layer lines the cavity and the other layer lines the organs. The peritoneum helps support the organs in the abdominal cavity and also allows nerves [more…]

How do the Stomach and Esophagus Process Food?

The food you eat makes its way to your stomach via the esophagus. It officially enters the abdomen when it passes through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. The esophagus ends at the esophagogastric [more…]

The Physiology of the Small and Large Intestines

The digestive system processes the food you eat. Food travels via the esophagus into the stomach and then into the small and large intestines. The small intestine starts at the pylorus of the stomach and [more…]

Renal Anatomy

Renal anatomy refers to anatomy of the kidneys. The two kidneys filter the blood and form urine, which is transported to the urinary bladder by the ureters. Each kidney is capped by a suprarenal gland, [more…]

The Nerves of the Pelvis

The pelvis is easy to access during physical examination, so it can tell you a lot if you understand its anatomy. The pelvic girdle is innervated by nerves that come from the sacral plexus, coccygeal plexus [more…]

Arteries and Lymphatics of the Pelvis

The pelvis is home to the reproductive organs, which differ depending on gender. A complex system of blood vessels and arteries circulate blood throughout the region. The area also houses lymph nodes that [more…]

The Anatomy of the Pelvis

The pelvis holds the reproductive organs, which, of course, vary greatly from males to females. All people have some pelvic organs in common, though, including some of the urinary organs and the rectum [more…]

The Anatomy of the Male Pelvis

The anatomy of the pelvis varies depending on whether you are male or female. The male pelvic organs include the penis and various glands and ducts. The testicles and scrotum are also important male structures [more…]

The Anatomy of the Female Pelvis

The female pelvic organs include the egg-producing ovaries and the uterine tubes that carry the eggs into the uterus for potential fertilization by male sperm. They also include the vagina, which is the [more…]

The Anatomy of the Perineum

The perineum is the region between the thighs inferior to the pelvic diaphragm. The boundaries of this region are the same as that for the pelvic outlet, namely the pubic symphysis, ischiopubic rami, sacrotuberous [more…]


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