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How Animals Mechanically Break Down Food

Different groups of animals eat different foods, but what do animals physically do with the food they consume? The different methods of breaking down food all make up [more…]

How to Count and Cut Calories

The optimal number of calories you need to maintain a healthy weight is based on how much energy you need when you are resting and how much energy you use when you are working. This amount varies for people [more…]

How Minerals and Vitamins Relate to Living Things

Vitamins are organic molecules that occur in all living things naturally. Minerals are inorganic molecules that are part of the earth. Because plants grow in the earth, some minerals are in plants, too [more…]

How Digestive Systems Work in Plants and Animals

Once an organism — a plant or animal — ingests (or absorbs) food, the organism’s digestive system immediately starts breaking down the food to release the nutrients. [more…]

How Animals Absorb Nutrients and Dispose of the Rest

Nutrients that the body can use are absorbed into the cells lining the small intestine. The rest of the material that cannot be further digested or used passes onto the large intestine. [more…]

How Plants Acquire Their Energy

Plants must get food into their systems in order to acquire energy and continue living, similar to animals. Plants create energy for animals to use, so they must replenish their nutrients. And plants breathe [more…]

How Plants Absorb Nutrients and Create Fuel

Plants have roots that stick down into the earth. The roots pull water, which has nutrients dissolved in it, up from the ground, providing fuel. A few special forces cause the water to move up the stem [more…]

Circulatory Systems in Plants and Animals

The circulatory system is the method of transport in plants and animals. Animals must have nutrients and oxygen reach every cell in their body. Plants must have nutrients and carbon dioxide reach every [more…]

What Causes Heart Disease?

Heart disease is the most common cause of death in the U.S. Maybe that’s because there are so many facets of heart disease. The heart and its accompanying circulatory system can be injured or damaged — [more…]

What Are the Components of Human Blood?

Blood is the fluid that sustains life. The components of blood include red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Some blood cells carry oxygen [more…]

How Blood Clots Form to Prevent Leaking

Blood clots form to help prevent leaking when you break the surface of the skin — for example, when you cut your finger chopping carrots or on a piece of broken glass. Your body goes through a certain [more…]

How Living Organisms Deal with Gases

Elements and gases are part of every living organism on earth. Life on earth began with elements and gases. Plants and animals formed from cells using those materials when the earth was forming. You can [more…]

How Respiration and Breathing Differ

Respiration is different than breathing. Breathing is the physical act of inhaling and exhaling. Respiration, however, is one big term that encompasses several metabolic processes. [more…]

How Homeostasis Keeps Your System in Balance

Homeostasis is a key concept in biology. The concept of homeostasis is the description for when the internal conditions of living organisms remain stable [more…]

How Do Enzymes Work in the Human Body?

Enzymes are proteins that allow certain chemical reactions to take place much quicker than the reactions would occur on their own. Enzymes function as [more…]

General Functions of Hormones in Living Creatures

Hormones are specialized substances that coordinate the activities of specific cells in certain areas of the body. Hormones are produced by cells in glands, and they are secreted by the gland into the [more…]

How the Human Brain Works

The brain is the master organ of the body. The brain takes in all information relating to the body’s internal and external environments, and it produces the appropriate responses. [more…]

The Five Sense Organs in Human Beings

The sense organs — eyes, ears, tongue, skin, and nose — help to protect the body. The human sense organs contain receptors that relay information through sensory neurons to the appropriate places within [more…]

How to Figure Out Biology Prefixes and Suffixes

The prefixes and suffixes used in biology lingo can help you figure out many biology terms. These prefixes and suffixes also can help you understand what the people in biology subspecialties do. [more…]

How to Figure Out the Structures of Animal Cells

You have organs and are made up of cells. Your organ systems perform certain functions in you, the entire organism. Cells have organelles that perform certain functions in the cell. Although it takes millions [more…]

The Fluid-Mosaic Model of the Cell Plasma Membrane

The fluid-mosaic model describes the plasma membrane of animal cells. The plasma membrane that surrounds these cells has two layers (a bilayer) of phospholipids [more…]

Examining Carbohydrates: Energy-Packed Compounds

Carbohydrates, as the name implies, consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (hydrate = water, hydrogen and oxygen). Carbohydrates are energy-packed compounds. They are broken down by organisms quickly, [more…]

The Basic Structure of Proteins

Without proteins, living things would not exist. Proteins are involved in every aspect of every living thing. Many proteins provide structure to cells; others bind to and carry important molecules throughout [more…]

What Is the Role of Nucleic Acids in Living Things?

Nucleic acids are large molecules that carry tons of small details: all the genetic information. Nucleic acids are found in every living thing — plants, animals, bacteria, viruses, fungi — that uses and [more…]

The Right Nutrition for the Human Body

The human body needs the proper nutrition — from the right proportion of foods in the various food groups — in order to run efficiently. If humans didn’t have such an evolved sense of taste, maybe they [more…]

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