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The Three Categories of Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Geologists classify the rocks of earth's crust in one of three categories — igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary — based on how the rock was created. Each type of rock has its own unique characteristics [more…]

How Crustal Plates Move: Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics is the unifying theory of geology. This theory explains how crustal plates move around the surface of the earth, and it allows geologists to find explanations for geologic events such as [more…]

The Geologic Timescale

Geologists organize the 4.6 billion years of earth's history into sections based on important changes seen in the geologic record. The largest intervals are [more…]

Geology For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Geology is the study of the earth, which begins with the study of the three types of rocks — the building blocks of the earth and its features. The unifying theory of geology is called [more…]

Reflection and Refraction Equations for Predicting Light's Direction

Reflection and refraction are two processes that change the direction light travels. Using the equations for calculating reflection and refraction, you can predict where rays encountering a surface will [more…]

Biochemistry's Acidic Amino Acids

Important to the study of biochemistry, aspartic and glumatic acids are negatively charged at physiological pH and polar. These two amino acids make up the acidic amino acid group and are represented here [more…]

Biochemistry's Basic Amino Acids

Amino acids are important to the study of biochemistry because they're the building blocks of proteins found in all cells. The basic group of amino acids is represented here: [more…]

Polar and Uncharged Amino Acids of Biochemistry

Except for glycine, the polar and uncharged (hydrophilic) amino acids can hydrogen bond to water and are usually more soluble than the nonpolar amino acids. The polar and uncharged amino acids studied [more…]

Nonpolar (Hydrophobic) Amino Acids of Biochemistry

Amino acids play an important role in the study of biochemistry. The following nonpolar amino acids are hydrophobic, or water-hating. They don't gratefully interact with [more…]

Biochemistry For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Studying amino acids (the building blocks of proteins, which humans need to grow and develop) is essential in biochemistry. The four subgroups of amino acids are [more…]

Equations for Optical Imaging

Imaging is a key function of optics. Specific optics equations can help you determine the basic characteristics of an image and predict where it will form. Use the following optics equations for your imaging [more…]

Optical Polarization Equations

Optical polarization is the orientation of the planes of oscillation of the electric field vectors for many light waves. Optical polarization is often a major consideration in the construction of many [more…]

Optical Interference Equations

Optical interference is just the interaction of two or more light waves. Optical interference is useful in many applications, so you need to understand some basic equations related to this optical phenomenon [more…]

Optical Diffraction Equations

Diffraction is light's response to having something mess with its path, so diffraction occurs only when something blocks part of the wavefront. Diffraction is the phenomenon where light bends around an [more…]

Equations for the Characteristics of Fiber-Optic Fibers

Besides imaging, fiber-optic networks are probably the largest application of optics. Fiber optics are very long, thin glass fibers that transfer information-bearing light from one place to another, but [more…]

Optics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Optics covers the study of light. Three phenomena — reflection, refraction, and diffraction — help you predict where a ray or rays of light will go. Other important optics topics include interference, [more…]

Nanotechnology Terms to Know

The field of nanotechnology has produced lots of terms. Some describe nanotechnology applications, others are the names of various types of nano-sized materials, and still others describe processes that [more…]

Nanotechnology Timeline and Predictions

In just the past ten years, numerous developments have been made in nanotechnology. This timeline will help you understand the recent past, present, and future of nanotechnology. [more…]

Useful Nanotechnology Information Websites

Because nanotechnology is a constantly changing field, these five websites will prove invaluable while you try to keep up with the latest applications and developments. From nanotechnology news to nanotechnology [more…]

Nanotechnology For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Nanotechnology, which involves molecule-sized machines and processes, requires the study of many developments and applications in a variety of fields. To understand nanotechnology, become familiar with [more…]

Alternation of Generations in a Plant Life Cycle

During the life cycle of a plant, the plant alternates between two forms: the sporophyte generation and the gametophyte generation. So, a complete plant life cycle includes both generations. [more…]

Types of Plant Tissues

Plant tissues come in several forms: vascular, epidermal, ground, and meristematic. Each type of tissue consists of different types of cells, has different functions, and is located in different places [more…]

Parts of a Flower

Flowers can be unisexual, having only male or female parts, or bisexual, having both types of parts. The male parts of a flower make up the stamens. The entire whorl of stamens in the flower is called [more…]

Botany For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Botany is the study of plants. Plants are very similar to people in a lot of ways, but they also have some differences that can be hard to wrap your brain around. And, like any science class, botany can [more…]

Explore Space with the Star Walk App for iPad

A purely astronomy-oriented app, Star Walk brings the heavens straight down to your iPad. It has several features, but when you first open it, you'll be asked for your current location. Once you've given [more…]

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