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Chemical Bonding Basics

In bonding, atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in order to have the same number of electrons as the noble gas that's nearest on the periodic table. Ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds are formed by combinations [more…]

Chemistry Concepts: Energy Levels and Orbitals

A lot of chemistry is explained by the sharing and trading of electrons between atoms. Understanding how electrons are arranged in an atom is a building block of Chem I. [more…]

Digging the Mole Concept in Chemistry

The mole (abbreviate mol and sometimes called Avogadro's number) is a conversion number that allows a chemist or chemistry student to move from the microscopic world of atoms, ions, and molecules to the [more…]

Identifying Isotopes through Representations

In Chem I, you may have to identify isotopes, which are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. The following representation allows you to identify a specific isotope of an element [more…]

Common Measurement Conversions for Chemistry

In order to succeed in your Chem I class, you need to have a firm understanding of basic chemistry measurements and how to convert them from one measurement to another. Following are some important conversions [more…]

The Basic Chemistry of Acids and Bases

A lot of chemistry requires you to understand the difference between acids and bases. An acid is a substance that donates an H+ ion to another chemical species called a base. A [more…]

The Combined Gas Law and Ideal Gas Law

When studying the properties of gases, you need to know the relationships between the variables of volume (V), pressure (P), Kelvin temperature (T), and the amount in moles [more…]

Chemistry For Dummies Cheat Sheet

During the first year of high school chemistry or the first semester of college chemistry, all the terms, units of measurement, and atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds may seem a bit overwhelming [more…]

Formulas for Calculating Stress at a Point

When dealing with mechanics of materials, choosing the correct formula to calculate the stress at a given point can be difficult. Normal and shear stresses come in a wide variety of applications, each [more…]

Basic Mechanics of Materials: Computing Stresses in Columns

Knowing how to compute the stress in a column (compression member) is a basic point of knowledge in mechanics of materials. Determine if the column is ' short, slender, or intermediate by computing its [more…]

Using a Generalized Hooke's Law for Stress and Strain

In mechanics of materials, Hooke's law is the relationship that connects stresses to strains. Although Hooke's original law was developed for uniaxial stresses, you can use a generalized version of Hooke's [more…]

Mechanics of Materials: Calculating Deformations from Loads

Deformations measure a structure's response under a load, and calculating that deformation is an important part of mechanics of materials. Deformation calculations come in a wide variety, depending on [more…]

Using Mohr's Circle to Find Principal Stresses and Angles

Anyone in the mechanical sciences is likely familiar with Mohr's circle — a useful graphical technique for finding principal stresses and strains in materials. Mohr's circle also tells you the principal [more…]

Mechanics of Materials For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Students and professional engineers in the mechanical sciences know that mechanics of materials deals extensively with stress on objects — from determining stress at a particular point to finding stresses [more…]

Important Thermodynamic Equations and Formulas

Thermodynamics is filled with equations and formulas. Here’s a list of the most important ones you need to do the calculations necessary for solving thermodynamics problems. [more…]

Conversion Factors for Physical Measurements

Sooner or later, you’re going to have to convert from one unit of physical measurement to another. This list gives you some of the most common conversion factors you need in thermodynamics. [more…]

Physical Constants in Thermodynamics

You run across a few physical constants when working out thermodynamics problems. Following is a list of the constants you need when you’re working with potential energy, pressure, or the ideal gas law [more…]

Thermodynamics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Thermodynamics sounds intimidating, and it can be. However, if you hone in on the most important thermodynamic formulas and equations, get comfortable converting from one unit of physical measurement to [more…]

The Three Categories of Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Geologists classify the rocks of earth's crust in one of three categories — igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary — based on how the rock was created. Each type of rock has its own unique characteristics [more…]

How Crustal Plates Move: Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics is the unifying theory of geology. This theory explains how crustal plates move around the surface of the earth, and it allows geologists to find explanations for geologic events such as [more…]

The Geologic Timescale

Geologists organize the 4.6 billion years of earth's history into sections based on important changes seen in the geologic record. The largest intervals are [more…]

Geology For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Geology is the study of the earth, which begins with the study of the three types of rocks — the building blocks of the earth and its features. The unifying theory of geology is called [more…]

Reflection and Refraction Equations for Predicting Light's Direction

Reflection and refraction are two processes that change the direction light travels. Using the equations for calculating reflection and refraction, you can predict where rays encountering a surface will [more…]

Biochemistry's Acidic Amino Acids

Important to the study of biochemistry, aspartic and glumatic acids are negatively charged at physiological pH and polar. These two amino acids make up the acidic amino acid group and are represented here [more…]

Biochemistry's Basic Amino Acids

Amino acids are important to the study of biochemistry because they're the building blocks of proteins found in all cells. The basic group of amino acids is represented here: [more…]

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