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### Chemistry For Dummies Cheat Sheet

During the first year of high school chemistry or the first semester of college chemistry, all the terms, units of measurement, and atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds may seem a bit overwhelming [more…]

### Formulas for Calculating Stress at a Point

When dealing with mechanics of materials, choosing the correct formula to calculate the stress at a given point can be difficult. Normal and shear stresses come in a wide variety of applications, each [more…]

### Basic Mechanics of Materials: Computing Stresses in Columns

Knowing how to compute the stress in a column (*compression member*) is a basic point of knowledge in mechanics of materials. Determine if the column is ' short, slender, or intermediate by computing its [more…]

### Using a Generalized Hooke's Law for Stress and Strain

In mechanics of materials, *Hooke**'**s law* is the relationship that connects stresses to strains. Although Hooke's original law was developed for uniaxial stresses, you can use a generalized version of Hooke's [more…]

### Mechanics of Materials: Calculating Deformations from Loads

Deformations measure a structure's response under a load, and calculating that deformation is an important part of mechanics of materials. Deformation calculations come in a wide variety, depending on [more…]

### Using Mohr's Circle to Find Principal Stresses and Angles

Anyone in the mechanical sciences is likely familiar with *Mohr**'**s circle* — a useful graphical technique for finding principal stresses and strains in materials. Mohr's circle also tells you the principal [more…]

### Mechanics of Materials For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Students and professional engineers in the mechanical sciences know that mechanics of materials deals extensively with stress on objects — from determining stress at a particular point to finding stresses [more…]

### Important Thermodynamic Equations and Formulas

Thermodynamics is filled with equations and formulas. Here’s a list of the most important ones you need to do the calculations necessary for solving thermodynamics problems. [more…]

### Conversion Factors for Physical Measurements

Sooner or later, you’re going to have to convert from one unit of physical measurement to another. This list gives you some of the most common conversion factors you need in thermodynamics. [more…]

### Physical Constants in Thermodynamics

You run across a few physical constants when working out thermodynamics problems. Following is a list of the constants you need when you’re working with potential energy, pressure, or the ideal gas law [more…]

### Thermodynamics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Thermodynamics sounds intimidating, and it can be. However, if you hone in on the most important thermodynamic formulas and equations, get comfortable converting from one unit of physical measurement to [more…]

### The Three Categories of Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Geologists classify the rocks of earth's crust in one of three categories — igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary — based on how the rock was created. Each type of rock has its own unique characteristics [more…]

### How Crustal Plates Move: Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics is the unifying theory of geology. This theory explains how crustal plates move around the surface of the earth, and it allows geologists to find explanations for geologic events such as [more…]

### The Geologic Timescale

Geologists organize the 4.6 billion years of earth's history into sections based on important changes seen in the geologic record. The largest intervals are [more…]

### Geology For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Geology is the study of the earth, which begins with the study of the three types of rocks — the building blocks of the earth and its features. The unifying theory of geology is called [more…]

### Reflection and Refraction Equations for Predicting Light's Direction

*Reflection* and *refraction* are two processes that change the direction light travels. Using the equations for calculating reflection and refraction, you can predict where rays encountering a surface will [more…]

### Biochemistry's Acidic Amino Acids

Important to the study of biochemistry, aspartic and glumatic acids are negatively charged at physiological pH and polar. These two amino acids make up the acidic amino acid group and are represented here [more…]

### Biochemistry's Basic Amino Acids

Amino acids are important to the study of biochemistry because they're the building blocks of proteins found in all cells. The basic group of amino acids is represented here: [more…]

### Polar and Uncharged Amino Acids of Biochemistry

Except for glycine, the polar and uncharged *(hydrophilic)* amino acids can hydrogen bond to water and are usually more soluble than the nonpolar amino acids. The polar and uncharged amino acids studied [more…]

### Nonpolar (Hydrophobic) Amino Acids of Biochemistry

Amino acids play an important role in the study of biochemistry. The following nonpolar amino acids are *hydrophobic,* or water-hating. They don't gratefully interact with [more…]

### Biochemistry For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Studying *amino acids* (the building blocks of proteins, which humans need to grow and develop) is essential in biochemistry. The four subgroups of amino acids are [more…]

### Equations for Optical Imaging

Imaging is a key function of optics. Specific optics equations can help you determine the basic characteristics of an image and predict where it will form. Use the following optics equations for your imaging [more…]

### Optical Polarization Equations

*Optical polarization* is the orientation of the planes of oscillation of the electric field vectors for many light waves. Optical polarization is often a major consideration in the construction of many [more…]

### Optical Interference Equations

*Optical* *interference* is just the interaction of two or more light waves. Optical interference is useful in many applications, so you need to understand some basic equations related to this optical phenomenon [more…]

### Optical Diffraction Equations

*Diffraction* is light's response to having something mess with its path, so diffraction occurs only when something blocks part of the wavefront. Diffraction is the phenomenon where light bends around an [more…]