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Science

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Organic Chemistry I For Dummies Cheat Sheet

You won't get very far in your study of organic chemistry without the periodic table of elements and an understanding of the common functional groups (or reactive centers) that dictate how most of a compound's [more…]

Einstein's General Relativity Theory: Gravity as Acceleration

General relativity was Einstein’s theory of gravity, published in 1915, which extended special relativity to take into account non-inertial frames of reference [more…]

Einstein's General Relativity Theory: Gravity as Geometry

General relativity was Einstein’s theory of gravity, published in 1915, which extended special relativity to take into account non-inertial frames of reference [more…]

String Theory's Idea of an Expanding Universe

Albert Einstein was influenced by the concept of an unchanging universe. His general theory of relativity predicted a dynamic universe — one that changed substantially over time — so he introduced a term [more…]

String Theory's Notions of The Big Bang Theory

Soon after astronomer Edwin Hubble proved the universe was expanding, it became evident that the universe was once very much smaller. The theory that the universe started from a single point [more…]

The Universe's Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Two of the biggest mysteries of both string theory and cosmology are the presence of unseen dark matter and of repulsive gravity in the form of dark energy. [more…]

String Theory: Defining a Black Hole

One of the consequences of Einstein’s general theory of relativity was a solution in which space-time curved so much that even a beam of light became trapped. These solutions became called [more…]

The Start of the Universe with String Theory

The big bang theory doesn’t offer any explanation for what started the original expansion of the universe. This is a major theoretical question for cosmologists, and many are applying the concepts of string [more…]

String Theory and the Thermodynamics of a Black Hole

When Stephen Hawking described the Hawking radiation emitted by a black hole, he had to use his physical and mathematical intuition, because quantum physics and general relativity aren’t reconciled. One [more…]

String Theory and the Black Hole Information Paradox

One of the important aspects of the thermodynamics of black holes relates to the black hole information paradox. This paradox may well have a solution in string theory, either in the string theory analyses [more…]

The Theory of Parallel Universes

The multiverse is a theory in which our universe is not the only one, but states that many universes exist parallel to each other. These distinct universes within the multiverse theory are called [more…]

Slowing Time to a Standstill with Relativity

In physics, time travel is closely linked to Einstein’s theory of relativity, which allows motion in space to actually alter the flow of time. This effect is known as [more…]

General Relativity and Wormholes: Doorways in Space and Time

In general relativity, the fabric of space-time can occasionally allow for worldlines that create a closed timelike curve,which is relativity-speak for time travel. Einstein himself explored these concepts [more…]

The Scientific Language of Genetics

From chromosomes to DNA to dominant and recessive alleles, learning the language of genetics is equivalent to learning the subject itself. The following key terms are guaranteed to appear frequently in [more…]

The Structure of the Cell Nucleus and Its Chromosomes

If you could open the nucleus of a cell and peek inside, you’d find chromosomes — the strands of DNA where genes reside. This figure helps you see how all the parts of a chromosome relate to one another [more…]

Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance

Genetic inheritance boils down to three simple concepts put forth by Gregor Mendel, a humble monk and part-time scientist who founded the entire discipline of genetics: [more…]

The Structure of DNA

DNA is made up of long chains of nucleotides. To make a complete DNA molecule, single nucleotides join to make chains that come together as matched pairs and form long double strands. Each nucleotide is [more…]

Uncover Inheritance Based on Genotype and Phenotype Ratios

When solving genetics problems, it pays to know what patterns to look for. The parent genotypes and offspring phenotypic ratios in this table can help you figure out what kind of inheritance is at work [more…]

Genetics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Genetics is a complex field with lots of details to keep straight. But when you get a handle on some key terms and concepts, including the structure of DNA and the laws of inheritance, you can start putting [more…]

The Power Trio of Sociology

Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber are the three most important figures in sociology. Their ideas about society are still discussed today, and you’re apt to hear their names in all branches of sociology [more…]

Types of Sociological Analysis

There is no one correct way to look at society; to understand how society works, sociologists use a range of different approaches and techniques. These are five common approaches, and they are often used [more…]

Means of Social Inequality

“All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others,” say the pigs in George Orwell’s Animal Farm. One of the central topics studied by sociologists is social inequality, and they think very carefully [more…]

Three Aspects of Social Organization

Sociologist Richard B. Scott, an expert in the study of social organization, has described a useful way of understanding how social organizations work. Every social organization behaves, to some extent [more…]

Common Misconceptions about Society

Many people are absolutely convinced of the truth of some things about society that are not entirely true. Here are a few of the most common misconceptions about society, proven false by sociology. [more…]

Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Sociology is the scientific study of society — of people interacting in groups, from small social circles to global society. Sociologists gather information about the social world and systematically analyze [more…]

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