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### How to Format Equations on the TI-89 Graphing Calculator

Your TI-89 graphing calculator can help you solve equations and systems of equations. All you have to do is put them in the proper format. Fortunately, the following list shows how to format equations [more…]

### Special Keys on the TI-89 Graphing Calculator

The TI-89 graphing calculator has so many functions, you may have trouble locating them all. But if you’re looking for theta or infinity (and who isn’t, right?), look no further than the following list [more…]

### Basic Keystrokes on the TI-92 and Voyage 200 Graphing Calculators

The TI-89, TI-92, and Voyage 200 calculators have similar functions, but in the case of the TI-92 and Voyage 200, different ways of accessing them. The following list shows how to access some basic functions [more…]

### How to Access Symbols on the TI-89 Graphing Calculator

Of course your calculator needs a not-equal-to sign, but the TI-89 graphing calculator also offers the @, an exclamation mark, and a sigma. The following list shows you how to produce these symbols and [more…]

### Accessing Odd Functions on the TI-89 Graphing Calculator

The TI-89 graphing calculator has all kinds of special functions. It can, of course, give you the mathematically certain answer you need, but it can also offer an approximation. You can tell it to stop [more…]

### Bioinformatics Data Formats

When you're using the Internet to help with your bioinformatics project, you come across data in all sorts of different formats. The following table can help you understand common bioinformatics formats [more…]

### Where to Find Bioinformatics Data

Bioinformatics combines information technology and molecular biology, so it makes sense that the Internet is the main arena for pursuing bioinformatics information. The following list offers links to helpful [more…]

### Bioinformatics Web Sites for Analyzing DNA/RNA Sequences

The bioinformatics Web sites in the following list offer help in analyzing DNA and RNA sequences. And, in the marriage of information technology and molecular biology that is bioinformatics, this type [more…]

### Bioinformatics Web Sites for Analyzing Protein Sequences

With bioinformatics you can explore molecular biology using information technology. The links to the Web sites in the following list focus on protein sequences. Some offer searchable databases, others [more…]

### Bioinformatics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Bioinformatics is the marriage of molecular biology and information technology. Web sites direct you to basic bioinformatics data and get down to specifics in helping you analyze DNA/RNA and protein sequences [more…]

### The Basic Elements of String Theory

Five key ideas are at the heart of string theory. Become familiar with these key elements of string theory right off the bat. Read on for the very basics of these five ideas of string theory in the sections [more…]

### What String Theory Attempts to Accomplish

To many, the goal of string theory is to be a “theory of everything” — that is, to be the single physical theory that, at the most fundamental level, describes all of physical reality. If successful, string [more…]

### The Successes of String Theory

String theory has gone through many transformations since its origins in 1968 when it was hoped to be a model of certain types of particle collisions. It initially failed at that goal, but in the 40 years [more…]

### Considering String Theory’s Setbacks

Because string theory has made so few specific predictions, it’s hard to disprove it, but the theory has fallen short of some of the hype about how it will be a fundamental theory to explain all the physics [more…]

### Einstein's Special Relativity

In 1905, Albert Einstein published the *theory of special relativity,* which explains how to interpret motion between different *inertial frames of reference* [more…]

### Common Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry

In organic chemistry, functional groups (or reactive centers) are small structural units within molecules that dictate how most of the compound's chemical reactions occur. Know these common functional [more…]

### Periodic Table of Elements

If you’re studying organic chemistry, the periodic table is an important tool. The elements and their atomic numbers are listed and grouped together by their properties — making it easier to remember without [more…]

### Organic Chemistry I For Dummies Cheat Sheet

You won't get very far in your study of organic chemistry without the periodic table of elements and an understanding of the common functional groups (or reactive centers) that dictate how most of a compound's [more…]

### Einstein's General Relativity Theory: Gravity as Acceleration

*General relativity* was Einstein’s theory of gravity, published in 1915, which extended special relativity to take into account *non-inertial frames of reference* [more…]

### Einstein's General Relativity Theory: Gravity as Geometry

*General relativity* was Einstein’s theory of gravity, published in 1915, which extended special relativity to take into account *non-inertial frames of reference* [more…]

### String Theory's Idea of an Expanding Universe

Albert Einstein was influenced by the concept of an unchanging universe. His general theory of relativity predicted a dynamic universe — one that changed substantially over time — so he introduced a term [more…]

### String Theory's Notions of The Big Bang Theory

Soon after astronomer Edwin Hubble proved the universe was expanding, it became evident that the universe was once very much smaller. The theory that the universe started from a single point [more…]

### The Universe's Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Two of the biggest mysteries of both string theory and cosmology are the presence of unseen dark matter and of repulsive gravity in the form of dark energy. [more…]

### String Theory: Defining a Black Hole

One of the consequences of Einstein’s general theory of relativity was a solution in which space-time curved so much that even a beam of light became trapped. These solutions became called [more…]

### The Start of the Universe with String Theory

The big bang theory doesn’t offer any explanation for what started the original expansion of the universe. This is a major theoretical question for cosmologists, and many are applying the concepts of string [more…]