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Politics & Government

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Long-Term Impact of Key Environmental Legislation in the U.S.

The peak of environmental legislation in the U.S. occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1970s in particular, the U.S. Congress passed a number of important laws to repair environmental damage and protect [more…]

Making and Handling Motions Following Robert's Rules

In an organization that's following Robert's Rules, when that light bulb goes off in your head and you have a great idea, you make a motion to get your idea discussed and a decision made. Here are the [more…]

Gift Rules for Washington, D.C., Lobbyists

Excerpted from How Washington Actually Works For Dummies

Members of the House and Senate must follow strict policies regarding Washington, D.C., lobbyists. The most visible of these policies concerns gifts [more…]

How Washington, D.C., became the Capital of the United States

Some capitals emerge from the eternal depths of history. Legend has it that Washington, D.C., was the result of a backroom political compromise. President Washington, newly sworn into office at New York’s [more…]

How Washington, D.C., Developed

As the new capital in Washington, D.C., was being constructed, the federal government stayed in Philadelphia. On May 15, 1800, President John Adams ordered the federal government to relocate to Washington [more…]

Washington, D.C., during the Roosevelt Years

Although the City of Washington, D.C., grew throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, the federal government did not expand greatly in size and scope. The election of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 [more…]

Washington, D.C., from the Cold War to the New Millennium

Between the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, new demands on Washington, D.C., to protect American security arose. President Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947 [more…]

Washington, D.C., History: Changing Population Demographics

Washington, D.C.,’s population grew steadily well into the 20th century, reaching a peak of 802,178 residents in 1950. But as Washington’s suburbs grew, the city’s population declined, hitting a low of [more…]

Introduction to the Washington, D.C., Establishment

Washington, D.C.,’s most precious resource is its inhabitants. After all, without the people who actually run the federal government and drive the policymaking process, Washington would be only a smallish [more…]

Federal Government Jobs in Washington, D.C.

Not all bureaucrats in Washington, D.C., are paper pushers. U.S. federal workers may be scientists, medical professionals, economists, mathematicians, negotiators, diplomats, lawyers, officers of the law [more…]

Career Officials versus Appointees in Washington, D.C.

The federal bureaucracy in Washington, D.C., is composed of people who have chosen to pursue a career in government, as well as political appointees who enter government to serve a particular presidential [more…]

How the Executive Office of the President in Washington, D.C., Works

In Washington, D.C., the Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of the core White House staff plus several small agencies that are either very political, very powerful, or both. The EOP is headed [more…]

How the President’s Cabinet and Departments in Washington, D.C., Work

Excerpted from How Washington Actually Works For Dummies

The President’s Cabinet in Washington, D.C., includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments: the secretaries of Agriculture [more…]

Washington, D.C.: Non-Cabinet Agencies Serve Important Needs

In addition to the Washington, D.C., departments that make up the Cabinet, a rather large number of independent or semi-independent agencies and institutions are also a part of any administration. [more…]

How Washington, D.C., Lobbyists Exercise the Right to Petition

Essentially, lobbying is exercising the right to petition in Washington, D.C. Our Founding Fathers may have thrown British tea overboard, but they decided to keep something else British around: the right [more…]

Large Corporations as Washington, D.C., Lobbyists

We all know that companies lobby in Washington D.C. From Goldman Sachs on financial regulatory reform to Microsoft on online piracy laws to Lockheed Martin on defense appropriation, companies exercise [more…]

Trade Associations as Washington, D.C., Lobbyists

Often companies join together and lobby in Washington, D.C., under the banner of a trade association. Individual companies pool their money and channel their activities through trade associations for various [more…]

Washington, D.C., Lobbyists: Labor Unions and Issue-Oriented Organizations

Labor unions are major lobbyists in Washington, D.C. From the American Federation of Teachers to the Air Line Pilots Association, labor unions represent — what else? — the interests of their members. In [more…]

Interest Groups as Washington, D.C., Lobbyists

Don’t work for a company, belong to a professional organization, or care about polar bears? An organization is still probably in Washington, D.C., lobbying for you. One of the largest and most influential [more…]

The Role Played By Lobbying and Consulting Firms in Washington, D.C.

Some interest groups lobby Washington on their own; they have in-house staffers who trek up to Capitol Hill and federal agencies to interface directly with decision makers and their staff. Other interest [more…]

What is a Washington, D.C., Lobbyist?

In 1995, Congress passed the Lobbying Disclosure Act (LDA), which remains on the books in Washington, D.C. today. (It was the first effort to regulate lobbying since 1946.) According to the LDA, a lobbyist [more…]

Foreign Agents Can Be Washington, D.C., Lobbyists

A piece of legislation governing Washington, D.C., lobbyists is the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA). Enacted in 1938, FARA requires persons acting as agents of [more…]

The Structure of the House in Washington, D.C.

The House of Representatives in Washington, D.C., has 435 members, each of whom serves only a two-year term. Someone must be at least 25 years old to run for a House seat. [more…]

Legislative Leaders in Washington, D.C.

Two of the most prominent legislators in Washington, D.C., are the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. The Senate president’s seat is filled by the nation’s Vice President. The Speaker [more…]

How the Legislative Committee Process Works in Washington, D.C.

Both the Senate and House of Representatives in Washington, D.C., are structured by committee. Congressional committees are charged with gathering information, evaluating the options on certain issues, [more…]

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