Politics & Government

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Finding Contract Modifications

Parties frequently modify (change the terms of) the contract after they make it. Technically, a contract modification is a new contract requiring consideration. When one party promises to give something [more…]

Identifying Third Parties to Contracts

A third party is a person who’s not a party to the contract. Common law recognizes three significant third parties: [more…]

Recognizing Common Contract Defenses

A contract defense is any legal challenge to a contract’s enforceability. Following are common contract defenses: [more…]

Excusing Contract Performance Due to Impracticability

When an unforeseen event makes performance of a contract obligation impracticable (impossible or unrealistic), the seller may claim that its nonperformance is excused. To analyze a claim of impracticability [more…]

Calculating Expectation Damages

According to the rule of the expectancy, a non-breaching party is entitled to damages that put the non-breaching party in the position it would’ve been in had the contract been fully performed. To use [more…]

What Is the Death Penalty?

The death penalty, also known as capital punishment or execution, is the sentence of death imposed by courts as punishment for a crime. People who receive the death penalty typically are convicted of murder [more…]

What Are the Limits on Contributions to Political Campaigns?

Contributions to U.S. political campaigns are limited by the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), which is administered by the Federal Election Commission [more…]

Identifying Current U.S. Supreme Court Justices

The justices on the Supreme Court interpret the Constitution, which affects everyone in this country. As you study constitutional law, knowing the justices and their interpretive styles helps you make [more…]

Analyzing a Procedural Due-Process Claim

Procedural due process involves the way the government goes about infringing on Americans’ rights. Procedural due-process cases assume that the government is constitutionally allowed to take away a right [more…]

Analyzing a Substantive Due-Process Claim

Substantive due process involves whether the government has a legitimate basis for taking away a person’s right to life, liberty, or property. The basic question is, “Wait — does the government have a [more…]

Important Rights Listed in the Constitution

The Constitution is chock-full of guarantees of individual rights and rules about what the government can and can’t do. Some provisions affect people’s lives more than others, but they are all important [more…]

Constitutional Law For Dummies Cheat Sheet

The Constitution (and constitutional law) affords people many rights, establishes the United States government, and defines and limits the government’s powers. The nine U.S. Supreme Court Justices are [more…]

Examining the Characteristics of a Psychopath

Robert Hare's Psychopathy checklist is a tool commonly used in clinical practice to assess whether an individual is a psychopath. Here are Hare’s definitions of two types of psychopath: [more…]

Using Forensic Psychology in Assessing a Criminal Offender

Forensic Psychologists often assess offenders to determine whether they’re fit to plead their case in court, or are likely to be violent in the future. There are a number of important issues to be considered [more…]

Identifying Criminal Capacity in Children with Forensic Psychology

Criminality can often be linked back to an offender’s childhood. A child who exhibits three or more of the following behaviours is at risk of becoming seriously anti-social as an adult: [more…]

Forensic Psychology For Dummies Cheat Sheet (UK Edition)

Forensic Psychology is the application of psychological knowledge to the criminal justice system. Print out and pin up this Cheat Sheet to remind yourself of how Forensic Psychology is used within the [more…]

What Is the Difference between a Primary Election and a Caucus?

Primaries and caucuses are methods that political parties use to select candidates for a general election. Here are some details on the two election methods. [more…]

What Is the President’s Cabinet?

The President’s Cabinet is composed of the principal appointed officers of departments of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet meets weekly to advise the President [more…]

What Is the Role of the White House Chief of Staff?

The White House Chief of Staff is an Assistant to the President of the United States. The Chief of Staff oversees the Executive Office of the President [more…]

What Is the Role of the White House Press Secretary?

The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act as spokesperson for the President of the United States and the White House. The White House Press [more…]

What Is the Role of the National Security Advisor?

The National Security Advisor, officially known as the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, serves as a chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues [more…]

What Is the Role of the Chair of the Federal Reserve System?

The chair of the Federal Reserve, known formally as the Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, is the head of the central banking system of the United States and the active executive [more…]

What Is the Role of the Speaker of the House?

The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, commonly referred to as the Speaker of the House (or simply, the Speaker), serves as the presiding officer of the U.S. House of Representatives [more…]

Understanding U.S. Political Conventions

A political convention is a meeting of a political party usually to select party candidates and party platforms. Generally, usage of the term political convention refers to the presidential nominating [more…]

What Are Super PACs?

The 2010 election saw the rise of a new political action committee known as the “Super PAC,” officially classified by the Federal Election Commission (FEC) as independent expenditure-only committees. Super [more…]


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