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### How SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) Works

The developers of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) made every effort to make the software easy to use. This prevents you from making mistakes or even forgetting something. That's [more…]

### The Four Ways to Talk to SPSS

More than one way exists for you to command the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to do your bidding. And you don't have to choose one and stick with it — you can perform tasks using whichever [more…]

### Generalizing Statistical Results to the Entire Population

Making conclusions about a much broader population than your sample actually represents is one of the biggest no-no's in statistics. This kind of problem is called [more…]

### Statistics Conundrums: Dealing with Survey Nonresponders

Nonresponders are always a problem when you're calculating the results of a survey. Before you can crunch the numbers in all the surveys you get back, you have to decide what to do about the surveys you [more…]

### How to Determine Which Data Analysis to Use in Statistics II

Statistics II is often about data analysis, and the trick is to know when to use which analysis method. The following table helps you compare, contrast, and decide what data analysis to use and when. Use [more…]

### Computer Output for Statistics II

If you’re taking Statistics II, you’re likely to face questions on computer output for multiple regression and ANOVA. Professors like to give output on exams and ask you to interpret it. Sometimes they [more…]

### Statistics II For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Statistics II elaborates on Statistics I and moves into new territories, including multiple regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square tests, nonparametric procedures, and other key topics. Knowing [more…]

### SPSS Syntax Language Variable Definitions

In Syntax, you can define several different characteristics for each of your variables. Here is the full collection of possibilities among SPSS Syntax language variables: [more…]

### SPSS Syntax Language Statements

A single Syntax language instruction can be very simple, or it can be complex enough to serve as an entire program. A single instruction consists of a command followed by arguments to modify or expand [more…]

### SPSS Syntax Language Predefined Variables

Most of the values used in Syntax are from the variables in the data set you currently have loaded and displayed in SPSS. You simply use your variable names in your program, and SPSS knows where to go [more…]

### SPSS Syntax Language Comments

You can insert descriptive text, called a *comment*, into your program. This text doesn't do anything except help make things clear when you read (or somebody else reads) your code. You start a comment the [more…]

### SSPS Syntax Language Relational Operators

Syntax offers conditional statements that are executed only if conditions are right. Usually those conditions are determined by evaluating the contents of a variable with a logical or relational operator [more…]

### SPSS Syntax Language Logical Operators

Syntax offers conditional statements that are executed only if conditions are right. Usually those conditions are determined by evaluating the contents of a variable with a logical or relational operator [more…]

### SPSS For Dummies Cheat Sheet

SPSS is an application that performs statistical analysis on data. Entering and manipulating information in the application can be done by using SPSS’s proprietary language, which is known as the Syntax [more…]

### Statistics Terms to Know when Using Excel 2007 Data Analysis Tools

With the data analysis tools available in Excel 2007, you can create spreadsheets that show the details of any statistic you can create a formula to find — and you can find any number. It helps to know [more…]

### Tips for Statistics Test Success

Working on statistics problems (especially word problems) can be frustrating; but it doesn’t have to be! You just have to avoid the urge to jump right in and start doing calculations because the key to [more…]

### Statistical Standard Scores and Standard Normal Distributions — The “Z-Table”

Statistics are handy when it comes to making predictions, but to make accurate predictions, you need to know how reliable your results are. The following Z- table shows standard scores and percentiles [more…]

### Statistical T-Distribution — The “T-Table”

As a statistical tool, a t-table lists critical values for two-tailed tests. You then use these values to determine confidence values. The following t-table shows degrees of freedom for selected percentiles [more…]

### Statistics Workbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Statistics is all about interpreting numbers, which is where Z-tables and t-tables come in handy as they help you determine distribution numbers and confidence levels. And, when it comes to statistics [more…]

### Understanding Formulas for Common Statistics

After data has been collected, the first step in analyzing it is to crunch out some descriptive statistics to get a feeling for the data. For example: [more…]

### Statistically Figuring Sample Size

When designing a study, the sample size is an important consideration because the larger the sample size, the more data you have, and the more precise your results will be [more…]

### Surveying Statistical Confidence Intervals

In statistics, a *confidence interval* is an educated guess about some characteristic of the population. A confidence interval contains an initial estimate plus or minus a [more…]

### Checking Out Statistical Confidence Interval Critical Values

Critical values (*z****-values) are an important component of confidence intervals (the statistical technique for estimating population parameters). The *z**** [more…]

### Handling Statistical Hypothesis Tests

You use hypothesis tests to challenge whether some claim about a population is true (for example, a claim that 40 percent of Americans own a cellphone). To test a statistical hypothesis, you take a sample [more…]

### Statistics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Whether you’re studying for an exam or just want to make sense of data around you every day, knowing how and when to use data analysis techniques and formulas of statistics will help. Being able to make [more…]