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Rulers of England and Scotland 1603–1707

King James VI of Scotland inherited the throne of England in 1603. Although this is called ‘the Union of the Crowns’, in fact the crowns of England and Scotland remained separate until the Act and Treaty [more…]

Rulers of Great Britain 1707–1801 and of the United Kingdom 1801–Present

The Act and Treaty of Union of 1707 between the Parliaments of England and Scotland created a Kingdom of Great Britain which consisted of England (which incorporated Wales) and Scotland. In 1801 the Act [more…]

British Prime Ministers 1721–Present

The office of Prime (or ‘first’) Minister developed in the eighteenth century, when the First Lord of the Treasury came to be regarded as the official head of the government. The first person who is generally [more…]

The British Isles: The Lie of the Land

The islands of Britain and Ireland are normally referred to as ‘the British Isles’ – not a politically accurate term (Ireland is not ‘British’) but no-one has yet come up with a workable alternative. [more…]

The Historical Periods of Britain

The history of Britain is usually divided by historians into a series of periods. This list gives you some of the highlights of each period. [more…]

British History For Dummies Cheat Sheet

British history is full of wonderful people (quite a few of whom were clearly stark raving mad, but that’s history for you) and exciting events – all of which helped make Britain the sort of place it is [more…]

Essential Facts about Albert Einstein's Life

Albert Einstein and his theories of relativity and quantum physics is celebrated the world over. Einstein, the scientist, is familiar to all; Einstein, the man, is less well-known. The following list contains [more…]

Einstein's Most Important Writings

Albert Einstein shared his scientific theories and discoveries through numerous books and papers. His theory of relativity made its first appearance in 1905 but was expanded upon and explained in many [more…]

Einstein For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Albert Einstein revolutionized science with his famous writings on relativity and quantum physics. But Einstein was more than a scientist — he was also a complex and well-respected man and an NAACP member [more…]

The Underground Railroad: Key Participants

Historians believe that the Underground Railroad may have originated with the Quakers in the late 1780s, so it’s no surprise that Quakers comprised a large portion of white Underground Railroad supporters [more…]

The Little Rock Nine: Desegregating Central High School in Arkansas

No one planned on Arkansas serving as a major desegregation battleground. The Little Rock School Board issued a statement that it would comply with the Supreme Court decision and adopted an integration [more…]

Sit-ins and Their Impact on the Civil Rights Movement

Sit-ins weren’t a new civil rights technique. But they in 1960 they helped energize the civil rights movement. Although a passive technique in nature, sit-ins caused real change to occur. The impact sit-ins [more…]

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act had been struggling in legislation under Kennedy's presidency. Ironically, Kennedy’s assassination strengthened the proposed civil rights bill. Prior to his death, any civil rights [more…]

What's the Emancipation Proclamation All About?

On July 22, Lincoln surprised his cabinet members by reading a preliminary draft of his executive order for emancipation. Only two cabinet members fully endorsed the Proclamation, and one cabinet member [more…]

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Contrary to popular belief, W.E.B. Du Bois didn’t conceive the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Instead, the NAACP began with a group of white people spurred to action [more…]

The Underground Railroad and How it Began

The Underground Railroad carried thousands of slaves to freedom, but it was no ordinary train. In the face of Constitutional amendments protecting slavery and rancorous debate over whether new states would [more…]

The Voting Rights Act of 1965

Without Freedom Summer and Selma, it’s doubtful that the Voting Rights Act of 1965 would have ever passed. Although black men had received the right to vote with the Fifteenth Amendment and the Nineteenth [more…]

Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Making Segregation Illegal

The dramatic civil rights and segregation battles that set the tone for much of the 1960s didn’t just happen. Several events preceded those battles, perhaps none more important than the 1954 Supreme Court [more…]

Crispus Attucks and The Boston Massacre

The Boston Massacre of 1770 helped to start the most important war in U.S. history, the Revolutionary War, and it all started with one man. A runaway slave for more than 20 years, Crispus Attucks instigated [more…]

Emmett Till: Putting a Face to Racial Violence

Emmett Till, a 14-year-old-boy raised on Chicago’s South Side, visited his uncle in Mississippi in August of 1955. The events that occurred during his trip outraged the nation and gave a face to racial [more…]

The Freedom Rides of 1961, Testing Boynton v. Virginia

Under the direction of James Farmer, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), an interracial civil rights organization, implemented the influential Freedom Rides of 1961. Organized to test the enforcement [more…]

Targeting Mississippi for African American Voter Registration: Freedom Summer

In the summer of 1964, Mississippi, where countless individuals were boldly murdered without consequence, continued its reign as a segregationist stronghold. Bob Moses, a former SCLC volunteer and a Student [more…]

Key Abolitionists: Leading the Antislavery Movement

Some of the most outspoken black antislavery advocates, or abolitionists, were runaway or former slaves. However, African Americans born free also identified with the struggle against slavery. Although [more…]

The Death of Martin Luther King Jr.

Very few people doubt that Martin Luther King, Jr., knew that his days were numbered. The fates of other figureheads and leaders in the civil rights movement — particularly the murders of Medgar Evers [more…]

The March on Washington (1963) and the Civil Rights Movement

Orchestrated by labor organizer A. Philip Randolph and unsung civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, the March on Washington was held in the nation’s capital on August 28, 1963. More than 250,000 people, [more…]


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