State, Territorial, and Other Census Records
Federal census records are not the only population enumerations you can find for ancestors in the United States. You may also find census records at the state, territorial, and local level for certain areas of the United States.
Several state and territorial censuses have become available online.
Ancestry.com has, within its subscription collection, state and territorial censuses for Alabama (1820–1866), California (1852), Colorado (1885), Florida (1867–1945), Illinois (1825–1865), Iowa (1836–1925), Kansas (1855–1925), Michigan (1894); Minnesota (1849–1905), Mississippi (1792–1866), Missouri (1844–1881), Nebraska (1860–1885), Nevada (1875), New Jersey (1895), New York (1880, 1892, 1905), North Carolina (1784–1787), North Dakota (1915, 1925), Oklahoma (1890, 1907), Rhode Island (1865–1935), South Dakota (1895),Washington (1857–1892), and Wisconsin (1895, 1905), as well as a host of other census records, including images of the U.S. Indian census schedules from 1885 to 1940.
Another source for state and territorial census images is at the free site HistoryKat. HistoryKat has images for Colorado (1885), Florida (1885), Illinois (1820–1865), Iowa (1836), Minnesota (1857), New Mexico (1885), Oklahoma (1890, 1907), and Wisconsin (1836–1847). The figure shows an image from the 1820 Illinois state census for Franklin County.
Indexes and some images for state and territorial censuses are also found at no charge on FamilySearch. Locations available on the site include Alabama (1855, 1866), California (1852), Colorado (1885), Florida (1885, 1935, 1945), Illinois (1855, 1865), Iowa (1885, 1895, 1905), Massachusetts (1855, 1865), Michigan (1894), Minnesota (1865–1905), New Jersey (1885, 1905), New York (1855–1925), Rhode Island (1885–1935), and South Dakota 1905–1945).
Special census records can often help you piece together your ancestors’ migration patterns, account for ancestors who may not have been enumerated in the federal censuses, or provide greater details on ancestors who were members of a specific population. Some examples of special censuses available at Ancestry.com include
Census of merchant seamen, 1930: Contains name, age, date of admission and discharge, habits, education, names and addresses of relatives and friends, questions on extended family, and questions on tendency toward self-sufficiency or dependence
New York census of inmates in almshouses and poorhouses, 1830–1920: Contains name, age, date of admission and discharge, habits, education, names and addresses of relatives and friends, questions on extended family, and questions on tendency toward self-sufficiency or dependence
Puerto Rico, special censuses, agricultural schedules, 1935: Lists the names of owners and managers of farms, acreage, farm value, machinery, livestock, and amount of staples produced on the farm
U.S. special census on deaf family marriages and hearing relatives, 1888–1895: Contains information on how the person became deaf and other relatives that might also be deaf
U.S. special census of Indians, 1880: Includes Indian name, English translation of the name, whether a chief, whether full-blooded, number of years on the reservation, and health information
U.S. Indian census rolls, 1885–1940: A collection of several censuses performed on Indian reservations