SQL Value Functions

Part of the SQL All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet

You use SQL value expressions to combine two or more values. Several kinds of SQL value expressions exist, corresponding to the different data types; the following tables list string, numeric, and datetime values, functions, and effects:

String Value Functions
Function Effect
SUBSTRING Extracts a substring from a source string
UPPER Converts a character string to all uppercase
LOWER Converts a character string to all lowercase
TRIM Trims off leading or trailing blanks
TRANSLATE Transforms a source string from one character set to another
CONVERT Same as TRANSLATE. (It transforms a source string from one character set to another.)
Numeric Value Functions
Function Effect
POSITION Returns the starting position of a target string within a source string
CHARACTER_LENGTH Returns the number of characters in a string
OCTET_LENGTH Returns the number of octets (bytes) in a character string
EXTRACT Extracts a single field from a datetime or interval
Datetime Value Functions
Function Effect
CURRENT_DATE Returns the current date
CURRENT_TIME(p) Returns the current time; (p) is precision of seconds
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(p) Returns the current date and the current time; (p) is precision of seconds
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