# PMP Certification All-In-One For Dummies

This Cheat Sheet gives you quick PMP certification facts to remember on test day to help you answer exam questions. You can review major project management concepts, as well as key tools, techniques, outputs, processes, and some common equations found on the exam. Many of the key concepts are defined in the PMBOK Guide Glossary.

## PMP Scheduling Relationships

Expect to see up to 10 questions dealing with network diagrams, precedence diagramming, and scheduling issues on the PMP (Project Management Professional) Certification exam. Here are some of the details you need to know:

• FS = Finish-to-start

• FF = Finish-to-finish

• SS = Start-to-start

• SF = Start-to-finish

• Lead = An acceleration in the relationships between activities

• Lag = A directed delay in the relationship between activities

• A mandatory dependency is based on the nature of the work

• A discretionary dependency is based on a best practice or preferred way of doing something

• An external dependency is based on a situation outside the project

## PMP Estimating Techniques

Estimating techniques can be applied to resources, effort, duration, and costs. The following are different methods of estimating you can use, depending on the situation.

Estimating method Description
Analogous estimating Generally used at the start of the project when not much is known. Compares the current project to past similar projects. A quick and relatively easy method of estimating, though not terribly accurate.
Parametric estimating Used for estimates that are quantitatively based, such as dollars per square foot or number of installations per day. A relatively simple method, but not every activity or cost can be estimated quantitatively.
Three-point estimating Accounts for uncertainty associated with estimating by determining an optimistic (best case, represented by O), most likely (represented by M) and pessimistic (worst case, represented by P) scenario. The most likely estimate is weighted most heavily. The equation is:
(O+4M+P)/6
Bottom up estimating Used when there is significant detail about the activity. A detailed assessment of the resources, capabilities, and amounts are used to determine an accurate duration or cost estimate. This is the most accurate method, but also the most time-consuming and expensive form of estimating.

## PMP Statistics for Normal and Cumulative Distributions

You must know some basic statistics for the PMP Certification exam. All equations are based on a normal distribution. In a normal distribution, keep the following in mind:

• 68.3% of the data points fall within one standard deviation

• 95.5% of the data points fall within two standard deviations

• 99.7% of the data points fall within three standard deviations

If you're looking at a normal curve and need a cumulative distribution, you should remember these values:

• 0.15% of the data points fall between 0 and -3σ from the mean

• 2.25% of the data points fall between 0 and -2σ from the mean

• 16% of the data points fall between 0 and -1σ from the mean

• 84% of the data points fall between 0 and +1σ from the mean

• 97.75% of the data points fall between 0 and +2σ from the mean

• 99.85% of the data points fall between 0 and +3σ from the mean

## PMP Strategies for Conflict Resolution

As you plan and execute a project, there will be conflicts and differences of opinion. The five strategies you can use to resolve conflict are:

Strategy Description Situation
Confronting/ Problem-solving Confronting the conflict as a problem to be solved When you have confidence in the other party’s ability to problem solve
When the relationship is important
When you need a win-win solution
Collaborating Win-win through collaboration and meeting to resolve issues When there is time and trust
When the objective is to learn
When you want to incorporate multiple views
When there is time to come to consensus
Compromising When you are looking for some degree of satisfaction for both parties When there is a willingness to give and take
When both parties need to win
When you can’t win
When an equal relationship exists between the parties in conflict
When the stakes are moderate
To avoid a fight
Smoothing/Accommodating Emphasize areas of agreement To reach an overarching goal
To maintain harmony
When any solution will be adequate
When you will lose anyway
To create goodwill
Forcing Win-lose; impose the resolution When you are right
In a do-or-die situation
When the stakes are high
To gain power
If the relationship is not important
When time is of the essence
Withdrawal/ Avoiding Retreat; cool off When you can’t win
When the stakes are low
To preserve neutrality or reputation
If the problem will go away on its own

## PMP Earned Value: Variances and Indexes

You'll see five to ten questions on this topic in the PMP Certification exam. Here is the fundamental information to determine cost and schedule variances and indexes.

When looking for information on schedule, use PV.

When looking for information on cost, use AC.

For a variance, subtract.

SV = EV-PV
CV = EV-AC
Negative is bad; positive is good.

For an index, divide.

SPI = EV/PV
CPI = EV/AC
Less than 1.0 is bad, greater than 1.0 is good.

## PMP Quality Control Tools

There are many ways to assess quality control. When you take the PMP Certification exam, you should be able to apply the following quality control tools:

Cause and effect diagram. Diagrams that define the inputs to a process or product in order to identify potential causes of defects.

Histogram. A bar chart showing a distribution of variables.

Run chart. Show trends in the variation of a process over time.

Scatter diagram. Shows the relationship between two variables.

Control Chart. A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, and that has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.

Flowcharting. The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.

Pareto Chart. A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.

Inspection. Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.