PMP Certification All-In-One For Dummies
This Cheat Sheet gives you quick PMP certification facts to remember on test day to help you answer exam questions. You can review major project management concepts, as well as key tools, techniques, outputs, processes, and some common equations found on the exam. Many of the key concepts are defined in the PMBOK Guide Glossary.
PMP Scheduling Relationships
Expect to see up to 10 questions dealing with network diagrams, precedence diagramming, and scheduling issues on the PMP (Project Management Professional) Certification exam. Here are some of the details you need to know:
FS = Finish-to-start
FF = Finish-to-finish
SS = Start-to-start
SF = Start-to-finish
Lead = An acceleration in the relationships between activities
Lag = A directed delay in the relationship between activities
A mandatory dependency is based on the nature of the work
A discretionary dependency is based on a best practice or preferred way of doing something
An external dependency is based on a situation outside the project
PMP Estimating Techniques
Estimating techniques can be applied to resources, effort, duration, and costs. The following are different methods of estimating you can use, depending on the situation.
|Analogous estimating||Generally used at the start of the project when not much is known. Compares the current project to past similar projects. A quick and relatively easy method of estimating, though not terribly accurate.|
|Parametric estimating||Used for estimates that are quantitatively based, such as dollars per square foot or number of installations per day. A relatively simple method, but not every activity or cost can be estimated quantitatively.|
|Three-point estimating||Accounts for uncertainty associated with estimating by
determining an optimistic (best case, represented by O), most
likely (represented by M) and pessimistic (worst case, represented
by P) scenario. The most likely estimate is weighted most heavily.
The equation is:
|Bottom up estimating||Used when there is significant detail about the activity. A detailed assessment of the resources, capabilities, and amounts are used to determine an accurate duration or cost estimate. This is the most accurate method, but also the most time-consuming and expensive form of estimating.|
PMP Statistics for Normal and Cumulative Distributions
You must know some basic statistics for the PMP Certification exam. All equations are based on a normal distribution. In a normal distribution, keep the following in mind:
68.3% of the data points fall within one standard deviation
95.5% of the data points fall within two standard deviations
99.7% of the data points fall within three standard deviations
If you're looking at a normal curve and need a cumulative distribution, you should remember these values:
0.15% of the data points fall between 0 and -3σ from the mean
2.25% of the data points fall between 0 and -2σ from the mean
16% of the data points fall between 0 and -1σ from the mean
84% of the data points fall between 0 and +1σ from the mean
97.75% of the data points fall between 0 and +2σ from the mean
99.85% of the data points fall between 0 and +3σ from the mean
PMP Strategies for Conflict Resolution
As you plan and execute a project, there will be conflicts and differences of opinion. The five strategies you can use to resolve conflict are:
|Confronting/ Problem-solving||Confronting the conflict as a problem to be solved||When you have confidence in the other party’s ability to
When the relationship is important
When you need a win-win solution
|Collaborating||Win-win through collaboration and meeting to resolve issues||When there is time and trust
When the objective is to learn
When you want to incorporate multiple views
When there is time to come to consensus
|Compromising||When you are looking for some degree of satisfaction for both parties||When there is a willingness to give and take
When both parties need to win
When you can’t win
When an equal relationship exists between the parties in conflict
When the stakes are moderate
To avoid a fight
|Smoothing/Accommodating||Emphasize areas of agreement||To reach an overarching goal
To maintain harmony
When any solution will be adequate
When you will lose anyway
To create goodwill
|Forcing||Win-lose; impose the resolution||When you are right
In a do-or-die situation
When the stakes are high
To gain power
If the relationship is not important
When time is of the essence
|Withdrawal/ Avoiding||Retreat; cool off||When you can’t win
When the stakes are low
To preserve neutrality or reputation
If the problem will go away on its own
PMP Earned Value: Variances and Indexes
You'll see five to ten questions on this topic in the PMP Certification exam. Here is the fundamental information to determine cost and schedule variances and indexes.
For variance and indexes, always start with EV.
When looking for information on schedule, use PV.
When looking for information on cost, use AC.
For a variance, subtract.
SV = EV-PV
CV = EV-AC
Negative is bad; positive is good.
For an index, divide.
SPI = EV/PV
CPI = EV/AC
Less than 1.0 is bad, greater than 1.0 is good.
PMP Quality Control Tools
There are many ways to assess quality control. When you take the PMP Certification exam, you should be able to apply the following quality control tools:
Cause and effect diagram. Diagrams that define the inputs to a process or product in order to identify potential causes of defects.
Histogram. A bar chart showing a distribution of variables.
Run chart. Show trends in the variation of a process over time.
Scatter diagram. Shows the relationship between two variables.
Control Chart. A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, and that has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
Flowcharting. The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.
Pareto Chart. A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.
Inspection. Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.