Cheat Sheet

Nutrition For Dummies (UK Edition)

Want to increase your nutrition knowledge and learn how to make better food choices? Here you will find some quick and easy reference points helping you to prepare for, live and enjoy a more nutritious life!

Nutrition-Related Measurements

Struggling to make sense of your pounds and ounces? Use this handy table when working with measurements to make sure you understand their quantities and abbreviations.

Abbreviation Measurement Equivalent
g gram 1,000 milligrams
1,000,000 micrograms
mg milligram 1/1,000 gram
mcg (µg) microgram 1/1,000,000 gram
kg kilogram 1,000 grams
2.2 pounds
lb pound 0.45 kilograms or 16 ounces
st stone 6.35 kilograms or 14 pounds
oz ounce 28 grams
l litre 1,000 millilitres or 1.76 pints
pt pint 568 millilitres
ml millilitre 1/1,000 litre

Key Elements Used in Nutrition-Specific Words

Use this table to help familiarise yourself with some of the language used within the subject of nutrition. Print it out and pin it up so you can refer back to it should you come across a word that needs further clarification.

Word Element Meaning
Amyl- starch
An- without
Anti- against
-ase an enzyme
Di- two
-aemia found in the blood
gastro- referring to the stomach
Gly- referring to sugars
Hydr-, hydro- water (also: hydrogen)
Hyper- above normal
Hypo- below normal
Lact-, lacti-, lacto- milk
Lip-, lipo- fat
Macro- large
Micro- very small
Mono- one
-ose sugar
Tri- three

Energy Content of Macronutrients

Need to find out about Macronutrients? Use this table as a very quick reference point when looking at the energy content of different food types.

Macronutrient Calories per gram
Protein 4
Fat 9
Carbohydrate 3.75
Alcohol 7

Adult Essential Vitamin and Mineral Nutrient Intake Reference

Need to know about your vitamins and minerals? Use these helpful tables to refresh your memory on reference nutrient intakes and get yourself up to speed.

Vitamin RNI for women RNI for men
Vitamin A 600 µg/day 700 µg/day
Vitamin D N/a N/a
Vitamin C 40 mg/day 40 mg/day
Thiamin (vitamin B1) 0.8 mg/day 1.0 g/day
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 1.1 mg/day 1.3 mg/day
Niacin (Vitamin B3) 13 mg/day 17 mg/day
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 1.2 mg/day 1.4 mg/day
Folate 200 µg/day 200 µg/day
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 1.5 µg/day 1.5 µg/day
Mineral RNI for women RNI for men
Calcium 700 mg/day 700 mg/day
Phosphorus 550 mg/day 550 mg/day
Magnesium 270 mg/day 300 mg/day
Sodium 1600 mg/day 1600 mg/day
Potassium 3500 mg/day 3500 mg/day
Chloride 2500 mg/day 2500 mg/day
Iron 14.8 mg/day 8.7 mg/day
Zinc 7.0 mg/day 9.5 mg/day
Copper 1.2 mg/day 1.2 mg/day
Selenium 60 µg/day 75 µg/day
Iodine 140 µg/day 140 µg/day
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