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Network Log Collection and Monitoring

Logging allows you to monitor what happened to your network in the past. Managing, your collected logs can identify issues before they become problems. Cisco devices, however, have limited buffer space to store logs, and when you reboot the device, you lose them.

Collecting logs in one location

To solve Cisco devices’ limited buffer space, use a Syslog server. You can find a Syslog server for Windows from Kiwi Software (now part of SolarWinds). You can choose from many other Syslog servers, all at different price points, ranging from free to thousands of dollars.

The purpose of a Syslog server, regardless of the cost, is to collect log data from a variety of devices and consolidate it in one place where it can easily be monitored, searched, and analyzed. If you use Linux or Unix, you have a huge selection of free Syslog servers.

The Syslog server acts as a collection point for your logging activities, allowing all your network logs to be stored in one place so that you can search it easily. The Syslog server is a must for network security because without a Syslog server, your logs will remain on scattered devices and will never be reviewed or archived.

The downside is that Syslog can send a lot of small pieces of data very fast, so it uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and cleartext to prevent overloading the network. To prevent unauthorized users from reading those cleartext packets and to isolate your Syslog traffic, you need to use a separate management VLAN.

This management VLAN should be in place already because that is where you isolate all your switch and router management traffic. Another option, in place of the management network, is to enable network layer security for all this traffic through IPSec or another type of encryption mechanism.

You can easily enable logging from the Cisco side of the equation. (The more difficult part is the configuration of the Syslog server.) Use code similar to the following example, which needs only to specify the IP address of the log server:

Router1#enable
Password:
Router1#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router1(config)#logging host 192.168.8.20
Router1(config)#exit

Choosing a logging level

With almost all Cisco’s Enterprise-level devices are eight default logging levels that range from zero to seven. Each of these logging levels is tied to a detail in the data logging. These levels allow you to easily choose a block of data that you wish to have logged into the system logs, and then actually sends the log info via SNMP or to Syslog destinations.

Take care as you increase the levels because you increase the load on your device CPU. This is especially true of level 7.

Cisco System Logging Levels
LevelTitleDescription
0 Emergencies System is unusable
1 Alerts Immediate action needed
2 Critical Critical conditions
3 Errors Error conditions
4 Warnings Warning conditions
5 Notifications Informational messages
6 Informational Normal, but significant, conditions
7 Debugging Debugging messages

As with most things with the Cisco IOS, this is not very difficult to set up or configure. In Global Configuration mode, use two commands. logging trap specifies which logging level should be sent to your Syslog server; logging buffered configures the logging level that displays in the temporary buffer.

Router1#enable
Password:
Router1#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router1(config)#logging trap 6
Router1(config)#logging buffered 6
Router1(config)#end
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