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How to Use PHP Variable Variables

PHP allows you to use dynamic variable names, called variable variables. You can name a variable with the value stored in another variable. That is, one variable contains the name of another variable. For example, suppose you want to construct a variable named $city with the value Los Angeles. You can use the following statement:

$name_of_the_variable = "city";

This statement creates a variable that contains the name that you want to give to a variable. Then, you use the following statement:

$$name_of_the_variable - "Los Angeles";

Note the extra dollar sign ($) character at the beginning of the variable name. This indicates a variable variable. This statement creates a new variable with the name that is the value in $name_of_the_variable, resulting in the following:

$city = "Los Angeles";

The value of $name_of_the_variable does not change.

The following example shows how this feature works. In its present form, the script statements may not seem that useful; you may see a better way to program this task. The true value of variable variables becomes clear when they are used with arrays and loops.

Suppose you want to name a series of variables with the names of cities that have values that are the populations of the cities. You can use this code:

$Reno = 360000;
$Pasadena = 138000;
$cityname = "Reno";
echo "The size of $cityname is ${$cityname}";
$cityname = "Pasadena";
echo "The size of $cityname is ${$cityname}";

The output from this code is

The size of Reno is 360000
The size of Pasadena is 138000

Notice that you need to use curly braces around the variable name in the echo statement so that PHP knows where the variable name is. If you use the statement without the curly braces, the output is as follows:

The size of Reno is $Reno

Without the curly braces in $$cityname, PHP converts $cityname to its value and puts the extra $ in front of it, as part of the preceding string.

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