Common Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry
Part of the Organic Chemistry I For Dummies Cheat Sheet
In organic chemistry, functional groups (or reactive centers) are small structural units within molecules that dictate how most of the compound's chemical reactions occur. Know these common functional groups you will run into in organic chemistry:
A principle discovered by the Greek mathematician Archimedes which states that the volume of a solid is equal to the volume of water it displaces.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
A model of atomic structure developed by Niels Bohr, a Danish scientist. In this model, electrons occur in orbits of differing energy levels around the nucleus of an atom.
The change in the physical state of matter from a gaseous state to a liquid state.
The change in the physical state of matter from a gaseous state to a solid state without ever becoming a liquid. The reverse of sublimation.
Substances that can conduct electricity either in the molten state or when dissolved in water.
A method used by chemists to represent electrons in bonding and chemical reactions.
A measure of an atom’s strength to attract a bonding pair of electrons to itself.
A method used by chemists to diagram the electrons for an atom (including orbitals and subshells) in bonding and chemical reactions.
A mixture whose composition varies from position to position within a sample.
A mixture whose composition is the same from position to position within a sample.
Atoms of the same element that have varying numbers of neutrons.
The sum of the protons and neutrons in a particular isotope; also called atomic weight.
Substances that do not conduct electricity in the molten state or when dissolved in water.
A nuclear reaction in which an atom’s nucleus splits into smaller parts.
A process in which lighter nuclei of atoms join together into a heavier nucleus; essentially the opposite of nuclear fission.
Any reaction that involves a change in nuclear structure.
A table that displays all known chemical elements in an arrangement that is based on the properties of the elements; changes over time as new elements are discovered.
A model of atomic structure that is based on mathematics and can be used to explain observations made on complex atoms.
The spontaneous decay of an unstable nucleus in an atom.
A worldwide measurement system that is based on the older metric system. The SI comes from the French Systeme International.
The change in the physical state of matter from a solid state to a gaseous state without ever becoming a liquid (such as dry ice).
The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom, the farthest away from the nucleus.