Add Columns to SharePoint 2010 Lists
A new custom list in SharePoint 2010 displays a single text Title column. The list also contains several behind-the-scenes columns that you can’t see, such as ID and Version. To make the custom list your own, you have to add columns to the list.
Columns are like fields in a database table. When you add a column to your list, a data entry field appears in the list’s New Form to give you a place to enter data into that column. You can also add columns to the predefined SharePoint lists.
Here's a quick overview to add columns to your custom list:
With your list open in the browser, click the List tab on the Ribbon and then click the Create Column button in the Manage Views group.
The Create Column window appears.
You can also add new columns with the List Settings page.
Type a name for your new column in the Column Name field.
The name you type is what users will see, so pick a name that's concise but meaningful. Don't use spaces in your column names when you first create them. You can always add spaces later.
Spaces entered in a column name become a permanent part of that column’s internal name in SharePoint. Some of these internal names can get quite lengthy and downright nonsensical, which makes referencing them a real pain.
Select the type of information you want to store in the column.
The options given here are fairly intuitive — Single Line of Text, Number, Date and Time, and so on.
Try to determine what kind of data you have when you first create the column. Changing the data type later may result in loss of data or you may not have as many options when you change the type.
In the Additional Column Settings section, select the options that further define your column’s type.
The column type you select in Step 3 determines what options you have available for configuring the column.
(Optional) If you want SharePoint to test the values entered into your column, use the Column Validation section to enter your formula.
SharePoint adds the column to your custom list.
You can change the column properties later and rearrange the order of the columns by using the List Settings page.
When you first create a custom list, use the List Settings page, where you have all the commands at your fingertips to power through the column creation — you can pick site columns, create your own, and rearrange them. After your list has been created and you need to add additional columns, the Create Column button on the list page is a handy way to add one or two columns without leaving the list page.