Electronics Components

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How Power Supplies Transform Voltage in Electronic Circuits

In most electronic power supplies, the transformer reduces the voltage. A transformer is a device that uses the principal of electromagnetic induction to transfer voltage and current from one circuit to [more…]

How Power Supplies Filter Rectified Current in Electronic Circuits

Although the output from an electronic rectifier circuit is technically direct current because all of the current flows in the same direction, it isn't stable enough for most purposes. Even full-wave and [more…]

How Power Supplies Turn AC into DC in Electronic Circuits

The task of turning alternating current into direct current is called rectification, and the electronic circuit that does the job is called a rectifier [more…]

Electronics Components: Introducing Microcontrollers

A microcontroller is a complete computer on a single electronic chip. They can be purchased for $50 or less. Like all computer systems, microcomputers consist of several basic subsystems: [more…]

Electronics Components: Introducing the BASIC Stamp

The BASIC Stamp is an electronic microcontroller made by Parallax, a company started by two kids fresh out of high school in 1986. A BASIC Stamp is an essentially complete, self-contained computer system [more…]

Electronics Components: Buying a BASIC Stamp

A BASIC Stamp is an essentially complete, self-contained computer system for use in electronic circuits. Although you can purchase a BASIC Stamp microcontroller by itself, the easiest way to get into BASIC [more…]

Electronics Components: BASIC Stamp Prototyping Boards

There are two kinds of BASIC Stamp prototyping boards that you can consider for your electronics projects — a BASIC Stamp HomeWork board and a BASIC Stamp Board of Education. [more…]

Electronics Components: Connect I/O Pins on a HomeWork Board

Before you start writing programs to run on a BASIC Stamp to add special effects to your electronics projects, you must first build the circuit(s) that will connect to the I/O pins on the Stamp. Once the [more…]

Digital Electronics: How to Install the BASIC Stamp Editor and Connect to the Stamp

To tell the BASIC Stamp what you want it to do in your digital electronics project, you must program it. The BASIC Stamp Windows Editor is the software that you use on your computer to create programs [more…]

Radio Electronics: Foxhole Radios

In World War II, electronically-inclined GIs would often build their own crystal radios from whatever materials they could scrounge up. These were called [more…]

Electronics Components: How to Detect Infrared Light

There are several ways to detect infrared light in an electronic circuit, but the most common is with a device called a phototransistor. You can buy a phototransistor for less than a dollar at RadioShack [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NOT Gates

The simplest of all logic gates in electronics is the NOT gate, which is also called an inverter. A NOT gate has just one input, and its output is the opposite of the input. If the input is LOW, the output [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: AND Gates

A two-input AND gate is an electronic logic gate that has two inputs and one output. The output is HIGH only if both of the inputs are HIGH. Any other combination of inputs results in the output’s being [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: OR Gates

Of all basic electronics logic gates, the OR gate is the most likely to produce a HIGH output. An OR gate produces a HIGH output if any of the inputs is HIGH. The output from an OR gate is LOW only if [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NAND Gates

A NAND gate is an electronic logic gate that is a combination of an AND gate and a NOT gate. In fact, the name NAND is a contraction of NOT and AND. The output of a NAND gate is LOW when both of the inputs [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NOR Gates

A NOR gate is a combination of the electronics logic gates OR and NOT. As with NAND, the name NOR is a contraction of NOT and OR. The output of a NOR gate is LOW when any of its input are HIGH. Otherwise [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: XOR and XNOR Gates

There are two remaining gates of the primary electronics logic gates: XOR, which stands for Exclusive OR, and XNOR, which stands for Exclusive NOR. In an XOR gate, the output is HIGH if one, and only one [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: De Morgan’s Theorem

De Morgan’s Theorem was created by Augustus De Morgan, a 19th-century mathematician who developed many of the concepts that make Boolean logic work with electronics. Among De Morgan’s most important work [more…]

Digital Electronics: Integrated Circuit Logic Gates

Over the 50 years or so that electronics circuit designers have been working on semiconductor-based logic circuits, many designs have been developed for creating logic gates. Because each approach to designing [more…]

Digital Electronics: 4000-Series Logic Gates

The 4000-series CMOS logic circuits include several itegrated circuits (ICs) that provide several electronic logic gates in a single package. Each of these 6 chips in the series contains 4 2-input logic [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: Universal NAND Gates

The fact that the NAND (not-and) gate is a universal gate in electronics is incredibly useful because it enables you to build any logic circuit, simple or complex, by using just NAND gates. [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: Universal NOR Gates

NOR (not-or) gates are universal logic gates for electronics applications. NOR gates can be combined in various and sundry ways to create NOT, AND, OR, and NAND gates. [more…]

Electronics: How to Use Software to Practice with Gates

If you really want to learn how logic gates work, one of the best ways is to download one of the many software logic gate simulators that are available free on the Internet. You can find these programs [more…]

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