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Digital Electronics: What is a Flip-Flop?

In the parlance of electronics, a flip-flop is a special type of gated latch. The difference between a flip-flop and a gated latch is that in a flip-flop, the inputs aren't enabled merely by the presence [more…]

Digital Electronics: Types of Flip-Flop Circuits?

In electronics, a flip-flop is a special type of gated latch circuit. There are several different types of flip-flops. The most common types of flip flops are: [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a D Flip-Flop Circuit

A D flip-flop electronic circuit has just one input in addition to the CLOCK input. This input is called the DATA input. When the clock is triggered, the Q output is matched to the DATA input. Thus, if [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a T Flip-Flop Circuit

The output of a T flip-flop alternates between HIGH and LOW with each clock pulse. Toggles are widely used in electronic logic circuits because they can be combined to form counting circuits that count [more…]

Electronics: How to Debounce a Clock Input

When you use a mechanical switch to trigger the electronic clock input of a flip-flop, the switch will very likely have some mechanical bounce. This bounce happens when the switch contacts don’t close [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Parallel-Port LED Flasher

This electronics project presents a simple breadboard circuit that connects eight LEDs to the eight output pins of a parallel port. To complete this project, you need to have a computer with a parallel [more…]

Electronics Components: How to Create Infrared Light

The easiest way to electronically create infrared light is by using a special light-emitting diode (LED) that operates in the infrared spectrum. Infrared LEDs [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Common-Collector Proximity Detector

A proximity detector is an electronic gadget that detects when an object is nearby. It can be made by combining an infrared light-emitting diode (IR LED) and a photodiode. [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NOT Gates

The simplest of all logic gates in electronics is the NOT gate, which is also called an inverter. A NOT gate has just one input, and its output is the opposite of the input. If the input is LOW, the output [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: AND Gates

A two-input AND gate is an electronic logic gate that has two inputs and one output. The output is HIGH only if both of the inputs are HIGH. Any other combination of inputs results in the output’s being [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: OR Gates

Of all basic electronics logic gates, the OR gate is the most likely to produce a HIGH output. An OR gate produces a HIGH output if any of the inputs is HIGH. The output from an OR gate is LOW only if [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NAND Gates

A NAND gate is an electronic logic gate that is a combination of an AND gate and a NOT gate. In fact, the name NAND is a contraction of NOT and AND. The output of a NAND gate is LOW when both of the inputs [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NOR Gates

A NOR gate is a combination of the electronics logic gates OR and NOT. As with NAND, the name NOR is a contraction of NOT and OR. The output of a NOR gate is LOW when any of its input are HIGH. Otherwise [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: XOR and XNOR Gates

There are two remaining gates of the primary electronics logic gates: XOR, which stands for Exclusive OR, and XNOR, which stands for Exclusive NOR. In an XOR gate, the output is HIGH if one, and only one [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: De Morgan’s Theorem

De Morgan’s Theorem was created by Augustus De Morgan, a 19th-century mathematician who developed many of the concepts that make Boolean logic work with electronics. Among De Morgan’s most important work [more…]

Digital Electronics: Darlington Arrays to Drive High-Current Outputs

Two electronic transistors can be connected to form a Darlington transistor (sometimes called a Darlington pair), which can switch much more current than the collector-emitter circuit of a standard transistor [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Create a Transistor NOT Gate Circuit

This project shows how to assemble a simple transistor NOT gate on a solderless breadboard. For this electronics project, a normally open pushbutton is used as the input. When the button isn’t pressed, [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Create a Transistor NAND Gate Circuit

This electronics project shows how to assemble a simple transistor NAND gate on a solderless breadboard. Normally open pushbuttons are used for the two inputs. The LED will be on until you press both of [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Create a Transistor NOR Gate Circuit

You can build a two-transistor NOR gate by following the steps outlined in this project. The project uses normally open pushbuttons to control the input circuits. When power is applied to this circuit, [more…]

Digital Electronics: Integrated Circuit Logic Gates

Over the 50 years or so that electronics circuit designers have been working on semiconductor-based logic circuits, many designs have been developed for creating logic gates. Because each approach to designing [more…]

Digital Electronics: 4000-Series Logic Gates

The 4000-series CMOS logic circuits include several itegrated circuits (ICs) that provide several electronic logic gates in a single package. Each of these 6 chips in the series contains 4 2-input logic [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: Universal NAND Gates

The fact that the NAND (not-and) gate is a universal gate in electronics is incredibly useful because it enables you to build any logic circuit, simple or complex, by using just NAND gates. [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: Universal NOR Gates

NOR (not-or) gates are universal logic gates for electronics applications. NOR gates can be combined in various and sundry ways to create NOT, AND, OR, and NAND gates. [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Use NAND Gates to Create Other Gates

Electronic NAND gates (along with NOR gates) are universal gates, which means that you can construct any other type of gate by using nothing but NAND gates combined in various ways. The four electronics [more…]

Electronics: How to Use Software to Practice with Gates

If you really want to learn how logic gates work, one of the best ways is to download one of the many software logic gate simulators that are available free on the Internet. You can find these programs [more…]


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