Linux

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Linux Security and File Permissions

The Linux Essentials exam covers the topic of security and file permissions. The table shows the subtopics, weight, description, and key knowledge areas for this topic. [more…]

An Overview of Linux Programming

Linux comes loaded with all the tools you need to develop software. (All you have to do is install them.) In particular, it has all the GNU software-development tools, such as GCC [more…]

Linux: Variables (or Macros) in the GNU make Utility

The GNU make utility in Linux comes to your rescue by reading and interpreting a makefile. In addition to the basic capability of building targets from dependents, GNU [more…]

Linux: GNU Makefile Names

When a Linux application is made up of more than a few source files, compiling and linking the files by manually typing the gcc command can get tiresome. Also, you don’t want to compile every file whenever [more…]

Linux: The GNU makefile

In Linux, a makefile is a text file that describes which files are required to build a particular program as well as how to compile and link the files to build the program. For a Linux program made up [more…]

GNU C and C++ Compilers for Linux

The most important software-development tool in Linux is GCC — the GNU C and C++ compiler. In fact, GCC can compile three languages: C, C++, and Objective-C [more…]

Linux’s Software-Development Tools

This article briefly describes what software-development tools are available to write applications for Linux. Linux includes the following traditional Unix software-development tools: [more…]

Linux: A Sample makefile

In Linux, you can write a makefileeasily if you use the predefined variables of GNU make and its built-in rules. Consider, for example, a makefile that creates the executable [more…]

Linux: How to Run make

The Linux make utility works by reading and interpreting a makefile. Typically you run make by simply typing the following command at the shell prompt: [more…]

The GNU Debugger

Although make automates the process of building a Linux program, that part of programming is the least of your worries when a program doesn’t work correctly or when a program suddenly quits with an error [more…]

Find Bugs in Linux by Using gdb

To understand how you can find bugs in Linux by using gdb, you need to see an example. The procedure is easiest to show with a simple example, so the following, [more…]

GNU Debugger Commands

The most common way to debug a program in Linux is to run gdb. gdb has a large number of commands, but you need only a few to find the cause of an error quickly. The table lists the commonly used [more…]

Understanding the Implications of GNU Licenses

You have to pay a price for the bounty of Linux. To protect its developers and users, Linux is distributed under the GNU GPL (General Public License), which stipulates the distribution of the source code [more…]

Linux: The GNU General Public License

The text of the GNU General Public License (GPL) is in a file named COPYING in various directories in your Linux system. For example, type the following command to find a copy of that file in your Linux [more…]

The GNU Library General Public License

The LGPL covers most Linux libraries, including the C library (libc.a). Thus, when you build your application on Linux by using the GCC compiler, your application links with code from one or more libraries [more…]

Linux: Trying Out sed

The following Linux example using sedincludes sample lines of a colon-delimited employee database that has five fields: unique id number, name, department, phone number, and address. [more…]

Linux: Working with awk and sed

This Linux example involves a database of books that includes the ISBN number of each title. In the old days, ISBN numbers were ten digits and included an identifier for the publisher and a unique number [more…]

Linux: Notes on Shell Scripting

Linux gives you many small and specialized commands, such as bash (short for Bourne-Again Shell) — the default shell in most Linux systems. You can learn how to write simple shell scripts, which are used [more…]

Linux: Trying Out Simple Shell Scripts

If you’re not a programmer, you may feel apprehensive about programming. But shell scripting (or programming) in Linux can be as simple as storing a few commands in a file. In fact, you can have a useful [more…]

Linux: Exploring the Basics of Shell Scripting

Linux gives you many small and specialized commands, along with the plumbing necessary to connect these commands. Take plumbing to mean the way in which one command’s output can be used as a second command’s [more…]

Linux: Storing Stuff with bash

You can use the features of bash when writing Linux programs called shell scripts — task-oriented collections of shell commands stored in a file. You define variables in [more…]

Linux: Simple Shell Functions

You can group a number of shell commands that you use consistently in Linux into a function and assign it a name. Later, you can execute that group of commands by using the single name assigned to the [more…]

Linux: Controlling the Flow of Execution

In Linux bash scripts, you can control the flow of execution — the order in which the commands are executed — by using special commands such as if, case [more…]

Linux: Explore bash’s Built-In Commands

bash in Linux has more than 50 built-in commands, including common commands such as cd and pwd, as well as many others that are used infrequently. You can use these built-in commands in any [more…]

Linux: 2 Parts of Computer Security Audits

An audit is simply an independent assessment of whatever it is you’re auditing. So in Linux, a computer security audit is an independent assessment of computer security. If someone conducts a computer [more…]

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