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Layer 2 of the Big Data Stack: Operational Databases

At the core of any big data environment, and layer 2 of the big data stack, are the database engines containing the collections of data elements relevant to your business. These engines need to be fast [more…]

Nonrelational Databases in a Big Data Environment

Nonrelational databases do not rely on the table/key model endemic to RDBMSs (relational database management systems). In short, specialty data in the big data world requires specialty persistence and [more…]

Key-Value Pair Databases in a Big Data Environment

By far, the simplest of the NoSQL (not-only-SQL) databases in a big data environment are those employing the key-value pair (KVP) model. KVP databases do not require a schema [more…]

Document Databases in a Big Data Environment

You find two kinds of document databases for big data projects. One is often described as a repository for full document-style content. The other is a database for storing document components for permanent [more…]

Columnar Databases in a Big Data Environment

Columnar databases can be very helpful in your big data project. Relational databases are row oriented, as the data in each row of a table is stored together. In a columnar, or column-oriented database [more…]

Graph Databases in a Big Data Environment

The fundamental structure for graph databases in big data is called “node-relationship.” This structure is most useful when you must deal with highly interconnected data. Nodes and relationships support [more…]

Spatial Databases in a Big Data Environment

Spatial databases can be an important tool in your big data project. Spatial data itself is standardized through the efforts of the Open Geospatial Consortium [more…]

RDBMSs in a Big Data Environment

Big data is becoming an important element in the way organizations are leveraging high-volume data at the right speed to solve specific data problems. Relational Database Management Systems are important [more…]

How to Remove MySQL Accounts

You might want to remove an account from a MySQL database. In most cases, having an account that no one uses doesn’t have any negative effects. However, if you think an account has been compromised, you [more…]

How to Back Up Your MySQL Database

You need to have at least one backup copy of your valuable MySQL database. Disasters occur rarely, but they do occur. The computer where your database is stored can break down and lose your data, the computer [more…]

How to Restore Your MySQL Data

At some point, one of your MySQL database tables might become damaged and unusable. It’s unusual, but it happens. For instance, a hardware problem or an unexpected computer shutdown can cause corrupted [more…]

Periodic Upgrades of MySQL

New versions of MySQL are released periodically, and you can upgrade from one version of MySQL to a newer version. You can find upgrading information in the [more…]

How to Choose the Data for Your MySQL Database

To design a MySQL database, you first must identify what information belongs in it. The database must contain the data needed for the website to perform its purpose. Here are a few examples: [more…]

How to Organize the Data for Your MySQL Database

MySQL is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), which means the data is organized into tables. RDBMS tables are organized like other tables that you’re used to — in rows and columns, as shown [more…]

How to Create Relationships between MySQL Tables

Some tables in a MySQL database are related. Most often, a row in one table is related to several rows in another table. You need a column to connect the related rows in different tables. In many cases [more…]

How to Store Different Types of MySQL Data

MySQL stores information in different formats, based on the type of information that you tell MySQL to expect. MySQL allows different types of data to be used in different ways. The main types of data [more…]

Design a Sample MySQL Database

In this exercise, you design a sample MySQL database to contain customer order information. Create the following list of information that you want to store for each customer: [more…]

Add MySQL Data One Row at a Time

If you have a small amount of data to add to your MySQL database, you can add one row at a time to the table. PHP scripts often need to add one row at a time. For instance, when a PHP script accepts the [more…]

How to Add a Bunch of MySQL Data

If you have a large amount of data to enter in your MySQL database and it’s already in a computer file, you can transfer the data from the existing computer file to your MySQL database. [more…]

Retrieve Information from a MySQL Database

The only purpose in storing information in a MySQL database is to have it available when you need it. A database lives to answer questions. What products are for sale? Who are the customers? How many customers [more…]

How to Retrieve Data from Specific Rows in MySQL Databases

Frequently, you don’t want to retrieve all the information from a MySQL table. You want information only from selected rows. Three SQL words are frequently used to specify the source of the information [more…]

Combine Information from Multiple MySQL Tables with UNION

You can combine information to from more than one MySQL table by using the UNION query. With UNION, rows are retrieved from one or more tables and stored together, one after the other, in a single result [more…]

Combine Information from Multiple MySQL Tables with JOIN

You can use a JOIN SELECT query to combine information from more than one MySQL table. With JOIN, the tables are combined side by side, and the information is retrieved from both tables. [more…]

PHP Functions That Communicate with MySQL

PHP provides two sets of functions for communicating with MySQL — the mysql functions and the mysqli (MySQL Improved) functions. Which functions you use depends on the version of MySQL and PHP you’re using [more…]

How to Connect to the MySQL Server

Before you can store or get any data, you need to connect to the MySQL database, which might be on the same computer as your PHP scripts or on a different computer. You don't need to know the details of [more…]


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