Cisco Networking

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Cisco Networking: Installing Wireshark

Wireshark is network protocol analyzer or network sniffer, which is a tool that can view the details of network traffic. When you install Wireshark, you are prompted during the installation to install [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Network Model Overview

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defines how network devices should be designed to communicate with each other. The ISO has proposed a network model that allows for this communication [more…]

Cisco Networking: Design and Layout Methodology Overview

Cisco networking relies on three main design methods when dealing with network design or network layout. The first two methods in the following list relate to the goal of the network, whereas the third [more…]

Cisco Networking: Intelligent Information Network (IIN) Design Methodology

The Intelligent Information Network (IIN) concept is one of the methodologies core to Cisco networking. The concept behind IIN is that network design should make information available when it is needed [more…]

Cisco Networking: Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA)

The Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) is one of the central models of Cisco network design and management. The SONA network architecture contains three basic layers: [more…]

Cisco Networking: Converting Base 2 (Binary) to Base 10 (Decimal)

Even though you might not think so, binary to decimal conversions are quite easy. A binary number like 10010011 is just like the Base 10 number system, except that each number represents a different column [more…]

Cisco Networking: Converting Binary to Base 8 (Octal)

Binary to octal conversions are actually quite easy, easier than binary to Base 10 conversion. This is due to the fact that octal numbers can be managed by simply grouping your binary numbers in sets of [more…]

Cisco Networking: Converting Binary to Base 16 (Hexadecimal)

The conversion of binary to Base 16 (hexadecimal) is easier than the binary to decimal conversion. The strangest thing about hexadecimal is that there are more than just ten numbers [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Model Layer 1 - Physical

The lowest level of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is the physical layer which represents the physical media, such as Category 5e cables and the Ethernet frame type that is used to move the [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Model Layer 2 - Data Link

The second level of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is the data link layer. The data link layer is adjacent to the physical layer, so they are associated pretty closely together. Whereas the [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Model Layer 3 - Network

The network layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model routes the data from one location to another, or across several defined networks. A network [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Model Layer 4 - Transport

The transport layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is closely related to the network layer, but adds functionality to it. You can think of this layer as a traffic cop or a supervisor for [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Model Layer 5 - Session

The session layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model defines how the data is formatted between the devices on either side of the link. This is effectively the manner in which they maintain [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Model Layer 6 - Presentation

The presentation layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is responsible for how that data looks or is formatted. Consider an example in which spies exchange encoded messages. The manner of [more…]

Cisco Networking: OSI Model Layer 7 - Application

The application layer is the highest level in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model and is the level that is closest to you — or furthest away from you if you are at the other end of the connection [more…]

Cisco Networking: Physical Layer Troubleshooting

Do not overlook the physical layer when you troubleshoot. Yes, troubleshooting the physical layer is not as sexy as say, troubleshooting on a Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance [more…]

Cisco Networking: Data Link Layer Troubleshooting

In the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model, the data link layer is just above the physical layer. At this layer, you should check the following items: [more…]

Cisco Networking: Network and Transport Layer Troubleshooting

Cisco network administrators must be familiar with the seven layers of the OSI model, two of which the network and transport layers. A myriad of problems can occur at the network and transport layers; [more…]

Cisco Networking: Application Layer Troubleshooting

You can have an issue at the application layer, but most issues you encounter happen at the other layers. However, some issues in the application layer or in other layers [more…]

Cisco Networking: Data Framing

Data travels over the physical media of the Ethernet network in small containers, or frames. There are different methods of framing Ethernet data, but the two that you are likely to see are Ethernet II [more…]

Cisco Networking: Packets

Data containers are dubbed frames in the data link layer (Layer 2) and packets in the network layer (Layer 3). In the network layer, you look only at the section of the frame that was referred to as data [more…]

Cisco Networking: MAC Addressing

The MAC address is taken by default from the hardware address of the network card. The MAC address is a 12-digit hexadecimal number or 48 bits in length. This address is assigned by the hardware manufacturer [more…]

Cisco Networking: NetBIOS Extended User Interface

The use of Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) occurs at the session layer — not the network layer. This has caused a lot of confusion for many people because NetBIOS is sometimes used — incorrectly [more…]

Cisco Networking: Network Traffic Basics

You know about traffic being sent out over a network but how exactly is this task performed. Here are the two main methods used to release traffic onto the network: [more…]

Cisco Networking: Network Protocol Analyzer Basics

Formerly Ethereal, Wireshark is network protocol analyzer, which is a tool that can view the details of network traffic. Before the prevalence of network switching, a tool like this could view all traffic [more…]

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